Focus

ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER N°4 2016 October-December

2016
EDITORIAL - PROF. STELIO MANGIAMELI - DIRECTOR OF THE ISSIRFA The results of the referendum of 4 December creates the basis for a different conclusion of the transitional institutional phase of Italian Regionalism, marked by the legislation produced during the crisis. The referendum stopped a shift towards the centralisation of legislative powers and State control over public financial resources, counterbalanced by the participation in central power through a Senate representing the Regions and ...

Ultra-High-Density Magnetic Recording: Storage Materials and Media Designs

2016
Magnetic recording is presently the leading technology for mass data storage. Its dominant role has been reinforced by the success of cloud computing, which requires huge amounts of data to be stored and managed on a multitude of servers. Nonetheless, the hard-disk storage industry is presently at a crossroad as the current magnetic recording technologies are unable to achieve storage densities beyond 1Tbit/in2. Pushing the recording density to the terabit regime requires new storage materials, ...

ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER N°2 2016 April-June

2016
THE REPORT ON REGION 2015. - The Report 2015 of Issirfa, edited by Stelio Mangiameli and Giulia Maria Napolitano, was presented on 21st June 2016 at the Senate of the Republic, Rome, in the presence of the Speaker of the Senate Hon. Pietro Grasso, of the President of the National Research Council, Prof. Massimo Inguscio, of the Undersecretary of State to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers for Regional Affairs, Hon. Gianclaudio Bressa, of the President of the Conference of Presidents ...

Deep learning models for text to image retrieval

2016
Researchers of the Networked Multimedia Information System (NeMIS) laboratory of Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione "A. Faedo" in Pisa have developed a deep learning-based image search model that works by taking in input a short textual description of the image the user is looking for, e.g.: "a group of skiers in a sunny day". They implemented the actual search process as a similarity search in a visual feature space, by learning to translate a textual query into a deep neural ...

Broad spectrum effects of natural phytochemicals on disease prevention and wellbeing

2016
Phytochemicals trigger cellular pathways leading to the prevention of pathological conditions associated with cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Although this positive association evidenced by interventional and observational studies is debated and subjected to criticism, biochemical and genetic studies on cellular and animal models on the mechanism(s) of action of phytochemicals provide a functional explanation of how and why a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can protect ...

ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER N° 3 2016 July-September

2016
EDITORIAL - PROF. STELIO MANGIAMELI - DIRECTOR OF THE ISSIRFA. BREXIT AND THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. The recent outcome of the British referendum on the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union has caused a situation of general discomfort and evoked unprecedented dangers; the stock exchanges wavered; the promoters of the referendum themselves were visibly concerned; the heads of the European Chanceries came together but then took different stances and finally, the European ...

ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER N°1 2016 January-March

2016
EDITORIAL - PROF. STELIO MANGIAMELI - DIRECTOR OF THE ISSIRFA. Regarding the autonomous regions, there was a significant event in the first quarter of 2016. For the first time in the history of the Italian Republic, the Constitutional Court declared that a repealing referendum proposed by the Regions is admissible (Judgment 17 of 19 January 2016, filed on 2 February 2016). With this judgment, the Constitutional Court has declared that the referendum proposed on prohibiting prospection, search ...

PETRA Project: Personal Transport Advisor: an integrated platform of mobility patterns for Smart Cities to enable demand-adaptive transportation systems

2016
The objective of the PETRA project is to develop a service platform that connects providers & controllers of city transport with the travellers in a new way. Cities get an integrated platform to enable the provision of citizen-centric, demand-adaptive city-wide transportation services. Travellers get mobile applications that facilitate them in making travel priorities and choices for route and modality. The result of the project is a city-wide transportation system comprised of several ...

Deviant Communities in Social Media

2016
The structure of a social network is fundamentally related to the interests of its members. People assort spontaneously based on the topics that are relevant to them, forming social groups that revolve around different subjects. Online social media are also favorable ecosystems for the formation of topical communities centered on matters that are not commonly taken up by the general public because of the embarrassment, discomfort, or shock they may cause. Those are communities that depict or ...

A new criticality index for the objects abandoned in low earth orbit

2016
A common way to evaluate the latent long-term environmental impact of an orbiting object, refraining from running thousands of complex simulations based on quite uncertain scenario assumptions, is to devise an indexing scheme grounded on reasonable premises. The main advantage of these heuristic approaches is the adoption of simple to understand and simple to apply rules, while the main drawback is the lack of a validated cause-effect foundation, unavoidable if the uncertain, stochastic and ...

A Platform for Rule-based Personalization of Web Applications in Internet of Things Contexts of Use

2016
The design and development of flexible software able to match the many possible user needs and provide high quality user experience is a major open issue, further complicated by the recent explosion of mobile technology and the Internet of Things (IoT), which have highly increased the variability and heterogeneity of the possible contexts of use of smart applications. In this scenario, such applications need to address extremely contextualized user needs, thus their complete behaviour cannot be ...

Privacy Risk Assessment - Privacy-aware Ecosystem for Data Sharing

2016
We live in times of increasing opportunities of sensing and analysing data describing human activities at extreme detail and resolution. Unfortunately, this comes with unprecedented risks, since this data can be related to personal and sensitive information about individuals. Data are tipically stored in the databases of companies (e.g., telecom, insurance and retail companies), which use legal constraints on privacy as a reason for not sharing it with science and society at large. Clearly, this ...

Remote sensing analysis to detect and identify illegal maritime traffic

2016
In recent years, European maritime countries had to face new situations involving the traffic of illegal vessels. The fight against unauthorized fishing, irregular migration and related smuggling activity has become an international priority. Image processing and computer vision methods can contribute to find a solution to these problems by using the large scale data which is nowadays made available by satellite constellations. With this aim, researchers at the Signals and Images Lab of ...

Digital semeiotics

2016
The face is the pre-eminent channel of communication among humans: it is a mirror of status, emotions, mood. This is the base principle of Medical Semeiotics, which looks at the face as a revealer of the healthy status of an individual, through a combination of physical signs (e.g., skin colour, subcutaneous fat) and facial expressions. Medical Semeiotics dates back as far as Aristotle's time; nevertheless it is still used by medical practitioners today, who rely on their ability to read the ...

How to help an otherwise-young person!

2016
The EU-funded DOREMI project (Decrease of cOgnitive decline, malnutRition and sedEntariness by elderly empowerment in lifestyle Management and social Inclusion) showed that in elderly people cognitive decline can be counteract and social inclusion can be improved with the help of cognitive games and a virtual companion to be used with PCs, TVs and tablets. The decline of cognitive ability is strongly related to lifestyle, as well as social engagement, cognitive stimulation, nutrition and ...

Learn PAd: Una Soluzione Orientata ai Processi per l'e-Learning nella Pubblica Amministrazione

2016
The processes behind the functioning of modern Public Administration (PA) are characterized by increasing complexity and continuous evolution. In most cases these processes require a collaborative activity shared among different offices, both within an administration and also across more organizations. Moreover, as related laws and regulations are frequently modified, the administrative processes are constantly transformed requiring the intertwined adaptation of related services and data. At ...

City users' classification with mobile phone data: the Sociometer

2016
Context Mobile devices are today noticeable means by which people disseminate digital tracks of their everyday activities: movements, purchase transactions, preferences, opinions, and so on. In particular, mobile phones and the data they produce revealed as a high-quality proxy for studying people mobility in different domains, such as environmental monitoring, transportation planning , smart cities and social relationship analysis and innovative demographic indexes. Opportunities Currently, a ...

3D supported restoration: the Neptune fountain in Bologna

2016
The restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna (Italy) started in 2016 and will be terminated in the first half of 2017. This action is funded by Comune di Bologna and it is joint project of Bologna University, Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro del MiBACT (ISCR) and CNR-ISTI. This restoration qualifies as a major restoration action both for the complexity of the artwork (a complex multi-material monument, with parts in stone and bronze showing different conservation ...

Community Discovery in Complex (and Dynamic) Networks

2016
In our everyday life, we are used to picture social relations - as well as countless other interactions - as mutable, dynamic and often short-term bonds. Research studies have extensively shown that networks inferred from social ties can be used to observe, characterize and forecast different aspects of human activities (such as predict new connections [1] or the usage of online communication services [2]) and that, in order to correctly describe the social phenomena we study, it is often ...

BRAKE PAD MATERIALS: EFFECT OF THE COMPOSITION ON FRICTION AND WEAR PROPERTIES

2016
The study deals with the friction and wear properties of materials for brake pads. It has been developed in the frame of a research collaboration with ITT Friction Technologies company, who is one of the world leaders in the field of brake pads. The gradual phasing out of asbestos, recognized as carcinogenic materials, pushed pads manufacturers to move away from them, to the purpose to obtain safe components. Such phenomenon resulted in a wide variety of brake pads, each with its peculiar ...

SECURITY OF INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS

2016
With specific reference to production processes, industrial security may be defined as the set of the studies, development and the applications of strategies, policies and operative plans, finalized to prevent, manage and solve adverse behaviors against people, environment and properties, either within or outside the industrial site, and against company resources, which are essential to ensure competitiveness in short or long period. In this perspective, industrial installations can represent ...

H2020 PROGRAMME FUNDS A REASEARCH PROJECT FOR THE PRODUCTIONO OF BIO-BUTANOL FROM AGRO-FOOD WASTE

2016
The Institute of Research on Combustion (IRC) is one of the partners of the research project Waste2Fuels 'Sustainable production of next generation biofuels from waste streams' that has been funded under the European Union's research and innovation program Horizon 2020 under the grant agreement no. 654623. The project is coordinated by the Spanish company IRIS Advanced Engineering with the participation of 20 partners from 8 countries, among these the 'Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei ...

Popolazione a Rischio da Frana e da Inondazione

2016
Nonostante il numero e frequenza delle frane e delle inondazioni che colpiscono i nostri territori, e la quantità di informazioni anche reperibili online su eventi di frana e di inondazione, il tema del rischio geo-idrologico resta poco conosciuto per la maggioranza dei cittadini. La mancata conoscenza si riflette sulla scarsa percezione che i cittadini hanno dei rischi geo-idrologici. Una delle cause della poca conoscenza è la modalità con cui i temi del rischio geo-idrologico sono stati ...

Economia del tessile sostenibile: la lana italiana

2016
In un mondo sempre più globalizzato, gli abiti sono il frutto di un lungo processo produttivo dove origine delle materie prime, luoghi di lavorazione e consumo diventano più lontani tra loro. Così le scelte delle imprese e dei consumatori hanno ricadute economiche, ambientali, sociali ed etiche sempre più complesse e difficili da controllare da parte del singolo attore socioeconomico. In questo panorama, sta lentamente avvenendo quanto si è già verificato per il cibo: si fa strada una ...

"Ultra-High-Density Magnetic Recording: Storage Materials and Media Designs"

2016
Magnetic recording is presently the leading technology for mass data storage. Its dominant role has been reinforced by the success of cloud computing, which requires huge amounts of data to be stored and managed on a multitude of servers. Nonetheless, the hard-disk storage industry is presently at a crossroad as the current magnetic recording technologies are unable to achieve storage densities beyond 1Tbit/in2. Pushing the recording density to the terabit regime requires new storage materials, ...

Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

2016
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample1, 2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide ...

"Free oxygen radicals and a hybrid genome: a dangerous cocktail"

2016
The genetic information is present in the cell as DNA, which is the form for storage and propagation to the next generation, and RNA, which is the form used by the cell to decode the instructions contained in its genes. DNA is composed of deoxynucleotides, while RNA is made of ribonucleotides. These two components are specifically recognised, respectively, by DNA polymerases, which use deoxynucleotides to build DNA, and by RNA polymerases, which synthesise RNA using ribonucleotides. DNA ...

New Broad-spectrum antiviral agents open the way to a single drug effective against the most dangerous viruses

2016
The real possibility of a revolutionary approach to new-generation antivirals demonstrated by a study of the University of Siena and the Italian CNR. A single drug against all viral infections, capable of hitting the protein that the virus uses to multiply. And this is the goal that will be made possible thanks to a study conducted in collaboration between the University of Siena and the CNR, which has identified new molecules capable of inhibiting the human protein DDX3. The research, ...

Sixth Arturo Falaschi Lecture

2016
As every year, the Institute of Molecular Genetics of CNR organized a conference to commemorate the scientific and human figure of Arturo Falaschi, first Director of the Institute and a great scholar of the mechanisms that govern DNA replication. This event is part of the IGM-CNR contribution to the Course of Doctorate in Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Pavia. The Sixth edition of the 'Arturo Falaschi Lecture' will be held by Professor Tomas Lindahl who, along with Paul ...

Respiratory symptoms/diseases prevalence is still increasing: a 25-yr population study

2016
Chronic respiratory diseases and allergic diseases have doubled in the last 25 years and living in a urban area is a risk factors for these diseases. Few epidemiological surveys on general population samples estimated changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms/diseases over a long time interval. A study performed by the Pulmonary Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, along with the Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, CNR, Palermo, the ...