Focus

Anticorpo monoclonale contro la leucemia mieloide acuta

2017
Su iniziativa del gruppo Menarini e di Oxford BioTherapeutics è stato sviluppato un anticorpo monoclonale, umanizzato, MEN1112 che è in grado di riconoscere ed eliminare cellule di leucemia mieloide acuta. Dopo una fase preclinica di studio e caratterizzazione, che ha dimostrato efficacia e tollerabilità, MEN1112 è stato ed è utilizzato in uno uno studio di tipo traslazionale nel quale l'anticorpo ha dimostrato promettente attività in campioni di sangue periferico e midollare di pazienti ...

Highlights 2017

2017
Highlights 2017 (see for details www.SPIN.CNR.it) Superconductivity Physical Review - R. Cristiano Physical Review - Z. J. Ying, M. Cuoco Physical Review Letters - A. Martinelli, P. Manfrinetti, A. Provino, F. Caglieris, G. Lamura, M. Putti Scientific Reports - C. Nappi, C. Camerlingo, E. Bellingeri, V. Braccini, C. Ferdeghini, E. Sarnelli Supercond. Sci. Technol. - I. Pallecchi, A. Leveratto, V. Braccini, V. Zunino, A. Malagoli Physical Review Materials - G. ...

Scientific report 2016-17

2017
Report of the Scientific activities for thee period 2016-17

CLINEXTRACT: A structured lexicon for the automated extraction of clinical concepts from the multisource medical records of aged people with hearing disabilities

2017
Hearing impairment is very common in older adults: 360 million people over 65 have disabling hearing loss worldwide. It is well recognized that a successful plan for hearing rehabilitation of older people shall take into account not only the technological aspects, such as what type of hearing aid or implanted hearing device is used, but also other aspects broadly related to auditory disability. In this view, key factors include the perceived hearing difficulties in real life, the impact on ...

Spatiotemporal classification of mobile network demands

2017
The surge in mobile data traffic -estimated globally at 3.7 exabytes in 2015, with a 74% increase over 2014 and an overall 4,000-fold growth over the past ten years- has fostered the interest of the computer network community towards better understanding the dynamics of the mobile demand. Indeed, a proper characterization of how mobile services are consumed by subscribers can enable an informed, more efficient tailoring of network resource planning and management to the end users' needs. ...

ELIXIR EXCELERATE, AN EUROPEAN PROJECT FOR BIOINFORMATICS TRAINING IN THE LIFE SCIENCES

2017
The European consortium Elixir is devoted to coordinate, integrate and sustain bioinformatics resource in LIfe Science research accross Eurpean countries. In this article, the IBPM coordinator and coordinators of other European nodes operating in the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE project (https://www.elixir-europe.org/about-us/how-funded/eu-projects/excelerate), describe the Train-the-Trainer (TtT) programme, designed to empower scientists to deliver high-quality training in bioinformatics. The TtT ...

Nanomateriali avanzati con trasmissione caratteristica straordinaria

2017
Nell'ambito di uno studio realizzato in collaborazione tra due diversi istituti del CNR, ricercatori hanno sviluppato nuovi nanomateriali in oro con straordinarie capacità di trasmissione. La ricerca è stata pubblicata in ACS Nano (Impact Factor 13.942), una delle riviste più importanti e prestigiose al mondo nel settore delle nanotecnologie. La ricerca è stata condotta dal team CNR-Nanotec coordinato da Antonio De Luca in collaborazione con il team dell'ISASI-CNR coordinato da Lucia Petti ...

MODEL ORGANISMS TO DISSECT THE MECHANISMS OF CELL DIVISION

2017
INT6/eIF3e is a highly conserved protein involved in several processes and downregulated in many human cancers. In this work, we show that loss of Int6 alters spindle microtubule behavior in mitosis, and hence affects the accuracy of chromosome segregation, by regulating the stability of specific mitotic proteins. Article: The Drosophila orthologue of the INT6 oncoprotein regulates mitotic microtubule growth and kinetochore structure Renda F, Pellacani C, Strunov A, Bucciarelli E, Naim V, ...

Neuroscienze: trovato il legame tra personalità e forma del cervello

2017
Come le differenze individuali nella struttura e funzione cerebrale siano legate al modo in cui ci comportiamo e proviamo emozioni e' una di quelle domande "esistenziali" alla quale gli scienziati cercano di dare una risposta da anni. Benchè risultati conclusivi non siano ancora disponibili, i dati raccolti fino ad ora hanno mostrato un forte legame tra la "forma" di alcune aree cerebrali e le varie caratteristiche di personalità. E' la conclusione di un recente studio effettuato da un team ...

PLANT BIOLOGY: THE MOLECULAR BASES OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION

2017
The correct synchronization of development of the different tissues of the male organ (stamen) in flowers is essential for male fertility in self-pollinating plants. In this work we demonstrate that the correct distribution of auxin, a plant morphogen, is essential to ensure this synchronization in the model plant Arabidopsis, and that the middle layer - a stamen tissue of previously unknown function - is crucial in generating a developmentally instructive auxin distribution. These findings ...

UNDERSTANDING THE BASIS OF CANCER RESISTANCE TO THERAPEUTIC DRUGS

2017
Resistance to cancer chemotherapeutics, e.g. taxanes and anthracyclines, is largely due to the overexpression of efflux pumps, in particular ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein or MDR1). Resistance leads to poor clinical outcome. Overexpression of a group of genes that surround the ABCB1 genomic locus (the ABCB1 amplicon), including Sorcin (SRI), may contribute to the establishment of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Here we show that: i) Sorcin is overexpressed in several tumors and cancer cell lines, in ...

SWIM (SWitchMiner)

2017
Over the last two decades, biological sciences have undergone radical transformation through the development of new research technologies that have produced a real explosion in the amount of data available. Just think of the modern genomic sequencing techniques that have made the sequencing of the human genome, different animal and plant organisms, and many microorganisms simpler, less expensive and more reliable with enormous benefits for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In the wake of the ...

AN INNOVATIVE STRATEGY TO KILL CANCER CELLS

2017
Cancer cells show profoundly altered mitotic divisions, and mitotic proteins are viewed as potential targets of novel antineoplastic drugs. Here, we have developed an in silico virtual screening to identify one small molecule targeting the interaction surface between microtubules and the kinetochore protein Hec1, thereby blocking microtubule dynamics. This small molecule effectively inhibits neoplastic growth, both in cultured cancer cells and in murine xenograft models, by promoting mitotic ...

Biogenesis of Membranes for Energy Transduction

2016
Particular attention is given to the study of mitochondri¬al biogenesis and its regulation under physiopathological conditions. Indeed, mitochondria, organelles equipped with membranes for energy transduction, have a pivotal role in the cell response to various kind of stress. The following topics are studied in detail: i) molecules of the mitochondrial membrane, such as cardiolipin, ii) aspects of mitochondrial bioenergetics under physiopathological and metabolic con¬ditions; iii) ...

Biomembrane bioenergetics system: functional mechanism and pathophysiology

2016
1. Regulation of expression, structure and assembly of mem¬brane energy transducing systems of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In this contest, the signal transduction and second messen¬gers, in particular cAMP, play an important role in regulating the biogenesis and functional capacity of membrane ener¬gy transducing systems and oxygen free radical balance in physiological and pathological conditions. Another area in¬volves the study of energy transducing systems in microor¬ganisms of ...

IMMUNOLOGY: THE "MEMORY" OF BONE MARROW T-LYMPHOCYTES

2016
The concept is emerging that the persisting memory T lymphocytes in the bone marrow (BM) is essential for immunological memory and successful response to vaccination, yet many questions remain unsolved. Di Rosa has proposed that the BM is essentially a nest for the homeostatic proliferation of memory T cells. Other researchers propose that the BM is rather a storage depot for memory T cells (debate in Nat Rev Immunol, april 2016). In 2016, Di Rosa proposed the "dual-niche" hypothesis, offering ...

Neuropsichiatria: trovati nel cervello i "segni" anatomici della condotta antisociale

2016
Gli adolescenti con gravi comportamenti antisociali presentano evidenti anomalie cerebrali rispetto ai coetanei che non soffrono di questo disturbo: è quanto emerge da una ricerca recentemente pubblicata sulla rivista internazionale Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Lo studio è stato condotto dalle Università di Cambridge e Southampton in collaborazione con l'Università Tor Vergata e il Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR). I ricercatori che hanno partecipato allo studio ...

Che cosa sapeva Braccio di Ferro dei nitrati?

2016
Braccio di Ferro, con la sua tipica pipa permanentemente in bocca e gli avambracci nerboruti, è un uomo di mare dall'aspetto un po' buffo che si trova sovente in situazioni rissose con Bruto, imponente marinaio attaccabrighe dalla barba folta e nera. L'arma segreta di Braccio di Ferro sono gli spinaci, un alimento ricco di diverse sostanze nutritive tra cui i nitrati. Recenti studi scientifici suggeriscono che l'ossido nitrico, prodotto derivante dai nitrati, svolge diverse funzioni ...

Graphs, diamonds and words Recognizing diamond-free balanced graphs via Dyck words.

2016
Sometimes, under certain circumstances, we know that problems that are in general hard to solve become easy for certain input instances. Of course, we have to be able to recognize such "lucky instances"and therefore we have to be able to characterize their "lucky properties" and exploit the characterization to devise efficient recognition algorithms. In other words we have to be able to answer the following question efficiently: "Is this instance a lucky one"; if the answer is yes then we are ...

Refitting: ship design review after building. An example of application of an optimization algorithm for continuous constrained optimization to naval design

2016
Production of a ship is a very complex task, representing the synthesis of an intense design activity: all the relevant parameters affecting the mission of the ship are considered in this phase. However, some of these parameters are changing in time, i.e. the payload may increase or reduce due to the different market demands: if the variations are not negligible, a review of the project could be economically advantageous after some years, identifying a modification of the hull able to produce an ...

BIOTECHNOLOGY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT OF DNA-BASED NANOMATERIALS

2016
A synergic collaboration between soft-matter physicists and molecular biologists of nucleic acid has yielded the realization of a new nano-material, DNA-hydrogel, liquid at low and high temperatures (≤20°C, > 45°C) and gelifies at 32/40°C. The liquid DNA hydrogel at 20°C can be easily injected into the organism and then quickly gelifies at body temperature (37°C). The abilty to gelify at 37°C is the starting point for the design and development of novel DNA-hydrogels as carriers ...

AMICA (Analysis of the oral microbiome during hormonal cycle and its alterations in menopausal women) project

2016
AMICA (Analysis of the oral microbiome during hormonal cycle and its alterations in menopausal women) is a project proposed by young ICB-CNR women researchers, directed by Dr. Fabiana Piscitelli, which aims to analyze and characterize the women salivary microbiome in function of changes in hormone levels (FSH, LH, progesterone and estradiol) during menstruation and menopause. For this reason, it is enlisting women volunteers of childbearing age and menopause between 25-70 years. Two are the main ...

BACTERIA SECRET WEAPONS

2016
Bacteria are highly adaptable and can live in very hostile environments. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a small gas molecule produced by bacteria in our intestine, and is a powerful inhibitor of cellular respiration by blocking the enzyme responsible for oxygen consumption in human cells. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that some enzymes help bacteria to produce energy and survive despite the presence of acid, often damaging human health. The team led by Ibpm, in collaboration ...

Mitochondrial carriers: structure and functional mechanisms

2016
This research activity is involved in the identification and in the functional and structural characterization of mitochon¬drial membrane transporters belonging to the family SLC25 known as "mitochondrial carrier family (MCF)". Main research topics are: i) study of the relationship between structure and function of mitochondrial carriers; ii) effects of either endogenous and xenobiotic molecules on the transport activity, mediated by mitochondrial carriers; iii) identification of the catalytic ...

Ancient topography research and digital archaeological maps

2016
Many of the research activities that IBAM carry out in the field of archaeology assume that the priority and most urgent problem is undoubtedly the recognition and the evaluation of Cultural Heritage. It is a necessity of primary importance both for studies directed towards historical and archaeological reconstruction and, especially, to enable appropriate policies to be put in place for the protection, monitoring and management, which are essential for the conservation and enhancement of value ...

Airborne and spaceborne remote sensing for archaeology

2016
Since its foundation the IBAM has been very active in the application of airborne and spaceborne earth observation technologies in Archaeology. Two laboratories, one in Lecce and the second in Potenza, focus on aerial archaeology and the development and validation of image processing algorithms for archaeological applications, respectively. The research is developed in cooperation with Laboratory of Ancient Topography and Photogrammetry of the University of Salento and the Laboratory of Remote ...

Geological and Geomorphological risks and Cultural Heritage protection

2016
The Mediterranean area and particularly Italy, possesses an extraordinary material and immaterial Cultural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV, as defined by ICOMOS) that must be protected and preserved, with particular emphasis on monuments, such as historic buildings (churches, castles, palaces, historic town centres, archaeological sites) which represent the historical memory of phases of settlement in different geographical contexts. Over the last 20 years there has been a growing ...

Geophysics for archaeology

2016
Geophysical survey refers to multiple techniques that measure variation in near-surface physical properties of the ground, such as magnetic properties, electromagnetic conductivity, electrical resistivity, induced polarization, self potentials, relative dielectric constant and ground density. Buried features, like stone or brick foundations; variation in sedimentary structure and ground moisture, such as in archaeological deposits, trenches, mounds, and burial vaults; and other subsurface ...

Practical and legal issues in Preventive Archaeology

2016
All over Italy the requirements of economic development are rapidly destroying many archaeological sites - the character of this destructive activity and the solutions adopted vary among different countries. The studies conducted by ANTAR ES-LAB (ANcient Topography, Archaeology and REmote Sensing - LABoratory) and the Geophysics for Archaeology Laboratory of IBAM cover the institutional and legislative background, provide statistical data and information on each field activity of preventive ...

Material culture and society: processes of recognition, analysis and interpretation. The many directions of Mediterranean Prehistory: voices and visions of the last ten years

2016
Scholars interested in Mediterranean prehistory share two expectations about the issue of Past: firstly that the accessible meanings reside not only in textual sources, and secondly that the study of world prehistory has acquired a privileged position in the current status of theoretical and methodological debates, adapting a wide range of scientific techniques to the resolution of cultural questions. It follows that in some important aspects, although the past must have changed through time, it ...