Focus

Towards a new field of physics: Coherent Caloritronics

2016
Quantum electronics is now a mature field of physics in the sense that its basis is well understood, and in that it is a natural playground to develop quantum technology. Despite this tremendous success in both the understanding and harnessing of charge transport, very little is known regarding the quantum properties of heat transport. The COHERENT CALORITRONICS group at CnrNano activity aims at strengthening the understanding of phase-coherent heat transport in mesoscopic superconducting ...

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

2016
More than 30 years ago, Glauber theorized the existence of quantum systems to explain the link between the reversible microscopic and irreversible macroscopic scale. The formulation of such model is based on the so-called "rigged Hilbert space" and include irreversibility as a fundamental principle through the introduction of an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifier. The standard quantum mechanics does not forbid time-travel. However, according to the Glauber theory a quantum ...

IRSIG FOCUS

2016
The effectiveness, efficiency and quality of judicial systems are cornerstones of democracy and they are of paramount importance for the economic competitiveness of every country, as recently also emphasized by the "EU Justice Agenda for 2020" of the European Commission. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for "research capacity" to improve functioning and performance of justice systems, with a specific interest in efficiency, length of proceedings, quality of decisions, court management, ...

Svelato il ruolo centrale del metabolismo nel funzionamento dei linfociti t umani

2016
Il meccanismo molecolare che controlla la funzionalità dei linfociti T dell'uomo è stato chiarito da una ricerca scientifica condotta dal gruppo del Prof. Giuseppe Matarese del Dipartimento di medicina molecolare e biotecnologie mediche dell'Università di Napoli 'Federico II' in collaborazione con il Laboratorio di proteomica dell'Itb-Cnr e il Laboratorio di immunologia dello Ieos-Cnr. I risultati dello studio sono stati pubblicati sulla prestigiosa rivista Immunity. I linfociti T umani sono ...

SPIKY

2016
SPIKY (Kreuz et al., 2015) is a graphical user interface written in Matlab which facilitates the analysis of electrophysiological data such as the EEG and neuronal spike trains (sequences of electrical action potentials emitted by neurons). In addition to the standard Peri-Stimulus Time Histogram (PSTH) it contains several time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony which were all developed in our lab: ISI-distance, SPIKE-distance, and SPIKE synchronization. For a given data set SPIKY ...

BRAKE PAD MATERIALS: EFFECT OF THE COMPOSITION ON FRICTION AND WEAR PROPERTIES

2016
The study deals with the friction and wear properties of materials for brake pads. It has been developed in the frame of a research collaboration with ITT Friction Technologies company, who is one of the world leaders in the field of brake pads. The gradual phasing out of asbestos, recognized as carcinogenic materials, pushed pads manufacturers to move away from them, to the purpose to obtain safe components. Such phenomenon resulted in a wide variety of brake pads, each with its peculiar ...

H2020 PROGRAMME FUNDS A REASEARCH PROJECT FOR THE PRODUCTIONO OF BIO-BUTANOL FROM AGRO-FOOD WASTE

2016
The Institute of Research on Combustion (IRC) is one of the partners of the research project Waste2Fuels 'Sustainable production of next generation biofuels from waste streams' that has been funded under the European Union's research and innovation program Horizon 2020 under the grant agreement no. 654623. The project is coordinated by the Spanish company IRIS Advanced Engineering with the participation of 20 partners from 8 countries, among these the 'Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei ...

SECURITY OF INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS

2016
With specific reference to production processes, industrial security may be defined as the set of the studies, development and the applications of strategies, policies and operative plans, finalized to prevent, manage and solve adverse behaviors against people, environment and properties, either within or outside the industrial site, and against company resources, which are essential to ensure competitiveness in short or long period. In this perspective, industrial installations can represent ...

"Ultra-High-Density Magnetic Recording: Storage Materials and Media Designs"

2016
Magnetic recording is presently the leading technology for mass data storage. Its dominant role has been reinforced by the success of cloud computing, which requires huge amounts of data to be stored and managed on a multitude of servers. Nonetheless, the hard-disk storage industry is presently at a crossroad as the current magnetic recording technologies are unable to achieve storage densities beyond 1Tbit/in2. Pushing the recording density to the terabit regime requires new storage materials, ...

Popolazione a Rischio da Frana e da Inondazione

2016
Nonostante il numero e frequenza delle frane e delle inondazioni che colpiscono i nostri territori, e la quantità di informazioni anche reperibili online su eventi di frana e di inondazione, il tema del rischio geo-idrologico resta poco conosciuto per la maggioranza dei cittadini. La mancata conoscenza si riflette sulla scarsa percezione che i cittadini hanno dei rischi geo-idrologici. Una delle cause della poca conoscenza è la modalità con cui i temi del rischio geo-idrologico sono stati ...

Economia del tessile sostenibile: la lana italiana

2016
In un mondo sempre più globalizzato, gli abiti sono il frutto di un lungo processo produttivo dove origine delle materie prime, luoghi di lavorazione e consumo diventano più lontani tra loro. Così le scelte delle imprese e dei consumatori hanno ricadute economiche, ambientali, sociali ed etiche sempre più complesse e difficili da controllare da parte del singolo attore socioeconomico. In questo panorama, sta lentamente avvenendo quanto si è già verificato per il cibo: si fa strada una ...

TITOLO: Organismi marini in ambienti freddi: adattamenti biochimici e applicazioni biotecnologiche.

2016
Gli organismi marini polari sono di grande interesse perchè: (i) sono tra le specie più vulnerabili al cambiamento climatico; (ii) rappresentano una fonte importante di composti naturali bioattivi che possono avere applicazioni nella "drug discovery". Gli adattamenti fisiologici negli organismi marini polari sono stati guidati, nel corso dell'evoluzione, da due fattori molto importanti: la bassa temperatura e l'alta concentrazione di ossigeno. LO STUDIO DEL CASO: LE EMOGLOBINE NEGLI ORGANISMI ...

MGD: Mediterranean Germplasm Database

2016
The aims of the Seedbank are:to store seeds, to preserve their longevity and genetic diversity, to monitor germination potential and to revaluate deriving pants. Seeds are living creatures and keeping them viable requires adjusting storage moisture and temperature appropriately. Seeds are amenable to storage for very long time as demonstrated by relief of seeds from archeological sites that nowadays are still able to germinate and are kept in other international Seedbanks. In the Seedbank at ...

AIRC (Italian Association for Cancer Researchand) and young people

2016
AIRC rewards this year two young researchers at the IGM-CNR of Pavia: Elisa Belloni (with a three years fellowship) and Anna Di Matteo (with a one year fellowship). Both researchers are involved in a research project in the group directed by Dr. Claudia Ghigna aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms driving the development of tumor vasculature, a fundamental process in cancer progression since cancerous cells stimulate the formation of new blood vessels in order to support their growth and ...

GaN technology Power-DAC supply modulator for high-speed envelope tracking and driver waveform generation

2016
Modern wireless communication systems employ large bandwidth digital modulated signals with very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) to enhance spectral efficiency and maximize the data rate. However, high PAPR digital modulations schemes are strongly detrimental for the radiofrequency (RF) amplifier that must operate most of the time several dB in back-off with respect to the nominal power and, therefore, with very low efficiency. A common technique to improve the RF high power amplifier ...

Alternative splicing and tumor

2016
The research group of Dr. Claudia Ghigna (Institute of Molecular Genetics of the National Research Council, CNR-IGM of Pavia) supported by the AIRC-Italian Cancer Research Association and in collaboration with the group of Dr. Ugo Cavallaro (IEO of Milan) showed that in the blood vessels of the ovarian tumor, one of the most common causes of death from cancer in the female population between 50 and 69 years, is present a new variant of the L1 protein. This variant (called L1-deltaTM) was ...

Respiratory symptoms/diseases prevalence is still increasing: a 25-yr population study

2016
Chronic respiratory diseases and allergic diseases have doubled in the last 25 years and living in a urban area is a risk factors for these diseases. Few epidemiological surveys on general population samples estimated changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms/diseases over a long time interval. A study performed by the Pulmonary Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, along with the Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, CNR, Palermo, the ...

Microscopy School at the "Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli" in Bologna

2016
The Microscopy School, in collaboration with the Digital Microscopy Center at "Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli" in Bologna, aims to provide the basic information for the use of the main optical microscopy techniques such as SIM Super Resolution, STORM, STED , TIRF and deconvolution. Super resolution microscopy is one of the most significant developments in imaging in biology since the light microscope was invented. The course is opened to researchers, students and technicians who are interested in ...

Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

2016
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample1, 2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide ...

New Broad-spectrum antiviral agents open the way to a single drug effective against the most dangerous viruses

2016
The real possibility of a revolutionary approach to new-generation antivirals demonstrated by a study of the University of Siena and the Italian CNR. A single drug against all viral infections, capable of hitting the protein that the virus uses to multiply. And this is the goal that will be made possible thanks to a study conducted in collaboration between the University of Siena and the CNR, which has identified new molecules capable of inhibiting the human protein DDX3. The research, ...

Sixth Arturo Falaschi Lecture

2016
As every year, the Institute of Molecular Genetics of CNR organized a conference to commemorate the scientific and human figure of Arturo Falaschi, first Director of the Institute and a great scholar of the mechanisms that govern DNA replication. This event is part of the IGM-CNR contribution to the Course of Doctorate in Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Pavia. The Sixth edition of the 'Arturo Falaschi Lecture' will be held by Professor Tomas Lindahl who, along with Paul ...

Cyber-Physical Convergence in the Future Internet

2016
The so-called Cyber-Physical Convergence is one of the main trends of the research in the Future Internet domain. It argues that the pervasiveness of mobile devices with networking capabilities is fostering a convergence between the physical world and the cyber world, whereby smart objects and humans interact with the cyberspace via sensing, computing and communication, generating huge volumes of data flowing between the two worlds. To address this vision, IIT-CNR researchers focus on several ...

Opere d'arte e imaging iperspettrale

2016
Sulla prestigiosa rivista 'Accounts of Chemical Research' è stato recentemente pubblicato da ricercatori dell'Istituto di fisica applicata 'Nello Carrara' del Cnr (Ifac-Cnr), insieme a un collega della National Gallery of Art di Washington, un lavoro di rassegna dedicato ad alcune delle più significative applicazioni dell'imaging iperspettrale su opere policrome di grande pregio storico artistico. La tecnologia dell'imaging iperspettrale rappresenta oggi una delle più avanzate frontiere ...

IGM remember Dario Fo

2016
On October 13th, Dario Fo, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1997, died. Others may better illustrate his absolutely original and innovative contributions in the literature and in the performing and visual arts, as well as his passionate commitment to social issues. On our side, we would like to remember the enthusiastic support that he and his wife Franca dedicated to our scientific research, in particular to the project stemming from a collaboration between Giovanni Maga in our Institute and ...

ARMENISE-HARVARD SUMMER FELLOWSHIPS

2016
We are all very proud that Sarah Giacchetti, LM student in Molecular Biology and Genetics, and Marco Roncandor, student in Medicine at the University of Pavia, have won one of the fellowships made available by the Giovanni Armenise-Harvard Foundation in collaboration with CNR, the College Ghislieri, CIBIO / University of Trento, the Scuola Normale and the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa. Both winners are engaged in research work at our institute, Sarah Giacchetti at the Dr. Elena Botta's ...

Costruire ponti. Daniel Ernst Jablonski nell'Europa del primo Illuminismo

2016
Tra le iniziative legate alle celebrazioni per il trecentenario della morte del filosofo tedesco Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) è stata organizzata la mostra 'Brückenschläge - Daniel Ernst Jablonski im Europa der Frühaufklärung'. La mostra descrive, mediante una serie di pannelli, l'importante contributo offerto dal suo corrispondente Daniel Ernst Jablonski (1660-1741) al dibattito religioso e politico del Settecento. La figura di Jablonski infatti contribuisce alla ricostruzione ...

"Free oxygen radicals and a hybrid genome: a dangerous cocktail"

2016
The genetic information is present in the cell as DNA, which is the form for storage and propagation to the next generation, and RNA, which is the form used by the cell to decode the instructions contained in its genes. DNA is composed of deoxynucleotides, while RNA is made of ribonucleotides. These two components are specifically recognised, respectively, by DNA polymerases, which use deoxynucleotides to build DNA, and by RNA polymerases, which synthesise RNA using ribonucleotides. DNA ...

Two genomic regions and lifestyle factors associated with human longevity.

2016
Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. In a study, recently published in Nature Communications, a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, helped discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). Previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity have also been validated. Next, the study shows that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new ...

L'IGB entra nel comunità del BBMRI con la prima biobanca genetica dedicata ad una singola malattia rara

2016
All'inizio di quest'anno, la Incontinentia Pigmenti Genetic Biobank (IPGB) ha ricevuto l'approvazione per entrare a far parte del network Registry & Biobanking del "Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure" (BBMRI), specifico per malattie rare, uno strumento indispensabile per il progresso delle ricerche sulle malattie genetiche rare. Il BBMRI è una struttura europea che raccoglie tutte le biobanche europee che rispondano a requisiti di qualità del materiale e dei dati ...