Focus

Basic research on the biology of model species and organisms of agricultural and natural interests

2015
This research focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the following processes: the development and differentiation, the degeneration and senescence, the reproduction, the evolutionary adaptation, the defence from endogenous and exogenous stresses, the maintainance of genomic integrity and fuctionality, the apoptosis, the protein stability, transfer and metabolism, the genetic expression and the signal transduction. The study of the above mechanisms is carried out adopting a ...

Ora il restauro si fa col laser

2015
Da FOCUS CNR n.1 2015 L'Italia custodisce un immenso patrimonio storico-artistico, che costituisce una preziosa eredità da salvaguardare e tramandare alle generazioni future, sviluppando nuove tecniche di intervento non invasive e adottando efficaci strategie conservative. L'ultima frontiera nel campo della conservazione è l'impiego di impulsi laser per la rimozione di depositi e materiali applicati in precedenti restauri dalla superficie di un'opera d'arte. "La tecnica, solitamente, sfrutta ...

A passive imaging technique based on pre-existing wireless systems

2015
Device-free radio vision is an augmented functionality provided by radio transceivers - typically heterogeneous, densely distributed and networked - that monitor the fluctuations of the electromagnetic (EM) field across the space. These monitoring devices may be pre-existing, deployed at arbitrary (or optimized) locations for communication purposes in the area of interest, and exchange digital information by any wireless communication protocol. Radio vision systems leverage diffraction, ...

Tumors grow with the alternative splicing process

2015
Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the CNR of Pavia, IFOM and the Department of Biosciences of the University of Milan, have shown that the protein Nova2, until now considered only present in the brain, is also expressed by the cells of the blood vessels and is directly related to their development. The study, published in Nature Communications, was supported by AIRC - Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro. The formation of new blood vessels, a process called ...

Impronte del traffico mobile nei tessuti urbani

2015
Nel 2014, 6,7 miliardi di telefoni cellulari hanno generato oltre due exabyte di dati relativi a una vasta gamma di servizi di telefonia mobile, tra cui la navigazione web, il social networking, video streaming, storage online ed il gioco on-line. Questa enorme quantità di attività può essere monitorato e geo-referenziata dagli operatori di telefonia mobile e divenire una fonte di informazioni senza precedenti su grandi popolazioni di individui. L'analisi dei dati di traffico di telefonia ...

Down syndrome: deficiencies in DNA repair of oxidative damage

2015
Down syndrome, also known as Trisomy 21, is associated, albeit with varying severity, with intellectual disability, premature aging, propensity to develop a disease similar to Alzheimer's, and the onset of some types of leukemia. Several studies have associated this phenotype with increased oxidative stress. A research conducted by a team of IGM researchers coordinated by Ennio Prosperi, in collaboration with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the University of Pavia, have shown that ...

The Laboratory of Smart PErvasivE and Distributed SYstems (Speedy LAB)

2015
The Speedy laboratory investigates the principles, models, methodologies and tools needed for the design and development of high-performance, distributed and pervasive systems. Such systems are a complex ecosystem of heterogeneous entities (services, smart objects/M2M, people, etc.) that cooperate to provide the related functionalities, and are able to evolve and quickly adapt to changing requirements. The focus is on combining Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things (IoT), in order to enable ...

The Laboratory of Dependable & Scalable Distributed Systems (DS2 Lab)

2015
Computer science today is driven by two main trends: the use of computing resources on demand (outsourced computing) and the need of processing a huge amount of data coming from different sources (data-centric computing). The effects of these two trends will lead the future computing platforms towards hybrid systems composed of distributed specialized subsystems with specific and complementary features that operate synergistically. These systems will interact with the users by means of multiple ...

"Even the eye wants its part..." Innovative nanocarrier for ocular drug delivery

2015
Nanotechnology applied to medicine is the new frontier of drug therapy that aims to create personalized, safer and more effective treatments. Nano-structured systems that can facilitate the penetration, the site-specific transport and controlled release of a drug, improving efficiency and reducing the unwanted side effects, could have evolutionary implications for pharmacotherapy. This explains the great interest of the academic and industrial research in drug delivery nanotechnology. This ...

The Laboratory of Cognitive Systems

2015
The Cognitive Systems Lab is aimed at studying and realizing cognitive systems of new generation, able to learn, reason, and pervasively engage with humans in a natural, personalized, reactive and/or proactive way. Theoretical, experimental, and applied research activities will be aimed at designing and implementing cognitive systems able to: i) engage individually or collectively with humans by combining advanced visualization techniques with adaptive and proactive multi-modal mechanisms based ...

TARGETING RNA DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE: A NEW CLASS OF POTENT COMPOUNDS AGAINST FLAVIVIRUSES. Dr. Eloise Mastrangelo

2015
The genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) consists of over seventy viruses, mostly transmitted by arthropods and pathogenic to humans. Among them, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Yellow Fever virus and the recent re-emerging Zika virus, occupy a special area within the RNA virus world. An effective and specific therapy against flaviviruses is currently not available and also the broad-spectrum antiviral ribavirin appears ineffective to treat flavivirus infections. ...

Computational multi-scale modeling

2015
One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to get a unified view of observations made from the molecular (microscopic) to the cellular (mesoscopic) up to the organism (macroscopic) scale. Towards this goal, multiscale models have been highly instrumental in contexts such as the cardiovascular field, angiogenesis, neurosciences and tumour biology. More recently, such models are becoming an increasingly important resource to address immunological questions as well. Multiscale modelling aims ...

The Laboratory of Smart Data and Models

2015
Nowadays, companies and individuals are immersed in digital interconnected ecosystems in which huge amounts of heterogeneous data, the so-called Big Data, are generated at an unprecedented speed. In this scenario, approaches and technologies for Big Data have the aim to make computable problems that involve large volumes of data, highly heterogeneous in size and structure, often generated in real-time, which can not be dealt with the existing information technologies. The purpose of the ...

Numerical validation of the conjecture of a subglacial lake at Amundsenisen, Svalbard

2015
The melting of glaciers coming with climate change threatens the heritage of the last glaciation of Europe likely contained in subglacial lakes in Greenland and Svalbard. This aspect urges specialists to focus their studies (theoretical, numerical and on- field) on such fascinating objects. Along this line, beneath Amundsenisen Plateau (Svalbard) the research groups, led by Jacek Jania (Dept. Earth Science, Univ. of Silesia) and Piotr Glowacki (Inst. Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ...

Pesticide mitigation measures

2015
Writing the Mitigation Measure Whitebook for Italy. Surface water bodies (e.g. rivers, streams, lakes, ponds) need to be protected from unacceptable impacts of crop protection products. Diffuse pollution can originate from correct pesticide applications to fields; two major potential pollution pathways exist: surface runoff and spray drift. Each of these pollution pathways may lead in principle to unacceptable predicted exposure concentrations in the receiving water body. Consequently, suitable ...

The Laboratory of Computational Science and Data (CDS Lab)

2015
The aim of Computational and Data Lab is to develop algorithms, models and software tools to detect, understand and design scientific and tecnologic solutions through the analysis of data obtained from experiments and tests, and/or through simulation of the processes generating them, dealing with new scientific challanges and multidisciplinary activities, related to ICT. Its activity is focused on the resolution of real problems with methodologies spanning from computer simulation, to scientific ...

The Laboratory of Cognitive Robotics and Social Sensing

2015
Human activities and the environments in which they occur (real or virtual) are perceived in an increasingly sophisticated manner by artificial agents, and they can trigger complex interactions with "intelligent" software agents or "autonomous"robot. The research activities aims to study new architectures and methodologies to better manage the cycle "perception-understanding-action" of artificial autonomous systems, taking inspiration also from human cognitive models. The perception usually ...

The Laboratory of Advanced Analytics on Complex Data (ADA Lab)

2015
ICAR laboratory ADA Lab conducts research in the area of Behavior Computing, a discipline aimed at modelling and analysing the behavior of heterogeneous entities in their environment. Behavior Computing is an important topic in different contexts including: consumer analytics, social computing, fraud detection, and group decision-making. The goal of ADA Lab in this context is twofold. First, defining mathematical models that allow to analyse, understand, and predict actions made by entities in ...

The Laboratory of Computational Intelligence (CI Lab)

2015
The Cognitive Systems Lab is aimed at studying and realizing cognitive systems of new generation, able to learn, reason, and pervasively engage with humans in a natural, personalized, reactive and/or proactive way. Theoretical, experimental, and applied research activities will be aimed at designing and implementing cognitive systems able to: i) engage individually or collectively with humans by combining advanced visualization techniques with adaptive and proactive multi-modal mechanisms based ...

Membrane transport as the main cell organizer

2015
Il trasporto cellulare mediante vescicole opera, secondo gli stessi principi generali, in organismi differenti quali uomo e lievito. Tale sistema è cruciale per una serie di processi fisiologici in cui la fusione delle vescicole deve avvenire sotto stretto controllo, mediante il rilascio di ormoni e citochine. Difetti nel trasporto si traducono in vari tipi di malattie tra cui una serie di disturbi neurologici ed immunologici. Il simposio di una giornata organizzato dall'Istituto di Biochimica ...

The Laboratory of Translational Bioinformatics (TB Lab)

2015
Translational Bioinformatics is an emergent field of health informatics that addresses the application of the scientific discoveries and technological innovations from the laboratories to the clinical practice. In the last decade, this area has seen a rising interest among the scientific community due to the development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques that allowed the availability of increasingly voluminous amounts of genomic data. In this context, the main objective of the TBLab ...

ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER 2015

2015
UPCOMING EVENTS The "Report on Regions 2014-2015" in press (Sole24ore) addresses the most relevant issues of regionalism: health, social services, environment, housing, cultural heritage, energy, migrations, technological innovation and technology transfer. Particular emphasis is placed on economic activities (agriculture, tourism, commerce, industry, handicrafts) which still receive support from Regions. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE INSTITUTE On the issues of the Constitutional reform, the ...

Is ATNX2  a regulatory gene in Italian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with C9ORF72 expansion?

2015
Through a joint study carried out in cooperation with Italian scientists, among which ISN-CNR researchers, a total of 1972 ALS cases were identified. The study population included: 333 Italian ALS cases who carried the C9ORF72expansion, 1639 Italian ALS not carrying the C9ORF72 expansion and 1043 controls.  In this study the large series of Italian ALS patients with C9ORF72 GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion, compared to age-, gender- and ethnic-matched controls, did not reveal an ...

Nanomaterials and enabling processes for sustainable manufacturing

2015
ISMN is internationally recognized as an institution of excellence in the field of nanomaterials and enabling processes. In this strategic field, the research activities are mainly focused on organic and hybrid electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, mechanics, sensors and nano-medicine. The aims of this research line are: The development of top-down, bottom-up and hybrid technologies for the fabrication of thin films and nanostructured systems integrated in nano and micro devices such as ...

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): a new tool for interface studies at the biological-physical nanointerface.

2015
There is currently a great interest in creating extremely sensitive and specific chemical and biological nanosensors. In this regard, the interaction between biological, organic and inorganic materials surface is one of the key issues in the near future. Since the technology must interact with the biological world on the molecular and cellular scale, the structure and properties of that interface must be designed and controlled on that scale. The nanoscale properties of the interface between ...

A new smart material for in vivo monitoring neurotransmitters in brain

2015
In vivo monitoring neurotransmitters is one of the most crucial problems to solve for neuroscientist and chemists, because these substances, particularly the catecholamines have many physiological roles, are critical for normal neuronal metabolism, and are involved in some neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The fact that the catecholamines are easily oxidable compounds makes their detection possible by electrochemical methods. A major problem of electrochemical detection in real ...

Sistemi nanostrutturati e dispositivi bioelettronici per la salute e la qualità della vita

2015
In questa linea di ricerca l'esperienza ISMN nelle nanotecnologie è utilizzata per la realizzazione di materiali nanostrutturati e dispositivi utili nel campo della salute e della qualità della vita. Le numerose e consolidate competenze dell'ISMN sono state sviluppate nell'ambito di numerosi progetti e collaborazioni sia nazionali che internazionali che hanno qualificato l'ISMN come un punto di riferimento per la promozione e lo sviluppo delle attività finalizzate alla realizzazione di ...

The NOSA-ITACA code for the structural analysis of masonry constructions of historical interest

2015
by Maria Girardi, Cristina Padovani and Daniele Pellegrini In Italy many historically and artistically important masonry buildings are in dire need of maintenance and restoration. In order to optimize such operations in terms of cost-effectiveness, architectural impact and static effectiveness, numerical codes have a crucial role to play in modelling the structural behaviour of masonry buildings. By providing important information such as the collapse loads, the stress field and the ...

Materiali e tecnologie per la sostenibilità ambientale e l'efficienza energetica

2015
Attività rivolta alla progettazione, sintesi e caratterizzazione di materiali nanostrutturati e sviluppo di dispositivi per la catalisi ambientale, per la chimica sostenibile e per la produzione di combustibili ed energia da fonti rinnovabili. Tali attività sono finalizzate alla rimozione di agenti inquinanti, alla produzione di combustibili da biomasse e di energia elettrica tramite celle a combustibile o dispositivi fotovoltaici. L'Istituto rappresenta un punto di riferimento sul piano ...

SI DO RE MI - Sistema Domiciliare di Rieducazione Espressiva del Movimento e dell'Interazione

2015
Il progetto SI DO RE MI è stato sviluppato dal Laboratorio Segnali e Immagini dell'ISTI grazie ad un finanziamento della Fondazione Telecom Italia. Il progetto prevede un intervento rivolto a bambini con Disturbi dello Spettro Autistico (DPS) e difficoltà relazionali finalizzato a promuovere l'interazione a vari livelli di complessità attraverso la mediazione della stimolazione sonora interattiva. A tale scopo è stato sviluppato un sistema HW/SW basato su di un calcolatore con sistema ...