Focus

"Even the eye wants its part..." Innovative nanocarrier for ocular drug delivery

2015
Nanotechnology applied to medicine is the new frontier of drug therapy that aims to create personalized, safer and more effective treatments. Nano-structured systems that can facilitate the penetration, the site-specific transport and controlled release of a drug, improving efficiency and reducing the unwanted side effects, could have evolutionary implications for pharmacotherapy. This explains the great interest of the academic and industrial research in drug delivery nanotechnology. This ...

The Laboratory of Cognitive Systems

2015
The Cognitive Systems Lab is aimed at studying and realizing cognitive systems of new generation, able to learn, reason, and pervasively engage with humans in a natural, personalized, reactive and/or proactive way. Theoretical, experimental, and applied research activities will be aimed at designing and implementing cognitive systems able to: i) engage individually or collectively with humans by combining advanced visualization techniques with adaptive and proactive multi-modal mechanisms based ...

Computational multi-scale modeling

2015
One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to get a unified view of observations made from the molecular (microscopic) to the cellular (mesoscopic) up to the organism (macroscopic) scale. Towards this goal, multiscale models have been highly instrumental in contexts such as the cardiovascular field, angiogenesis, neurosciences and tumour biology. More recently, such models are becoming an increasingly important resource to address immunological questions as well. Multiscale modelling aims ...

TARGETING RNA DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE: A NEW CLASS OF POTENT COMPOUNDS AGAINST FLAVIVIRUSES. Dr. Eloise Mastrangelo

2015
The genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) consists of over seventy viruses, mostly transmitted by arthropods and pathogenic to humans. Among them, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Yellow Fever virus and the recent re-emerging Zika virus, occupy a special area within the RNA virus world. An effective and specific therapy against flaviviruses is currently not available and also the broad-spectrum antiviral ribavirin appears ineffective to treat flavivirus infections. ...

The Laboratory of Smart PErvasivE and Distributed SYstems (Speedy LAB)

2015
The Speedy laboratory investigates the principles, models, methodologies and tools needed for the design and development of high-performance, distributed and pervasive systems. Such systems are a complex ecosystem of heterogeneous entities (services, smart objects/M2M, people, etc.) that cooperate to provide the related functionalities, and are able to evolve and quickly adapt to changing requirements. The focus is on combining Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things (IoT), in order to enable ...

Numerical validation of the conjecture of a subglacial lake at Amundsenisen, Svalbard

2015
The melting of glaciers coming with climate change threatens the heritage of the last glaciation of Europe likely contained in subglacial lakes in Greenland and Svalbard. This aspect urges specialists to focus their studies (theoretical, numerical and on- field) on such fascinating objects. Along this line, beneath Amundsenisen Plateau (Svalbard) the research groups, led by Jacek Jania (Dept. Earth Science, Univ. of Silesia) and Piotr Glowacki (Inst. Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ...

Pesticide mitigation measures

2015
Writing the Mitigation Measure Whitebook for Italy. Surface water bodies (e.g. rivers, streams, lakes, ponds) need to be protected from unacceptable impacts of crop protection products. Diffuse pollution can originate from correct pesticide applications to fields; two major potential pollution pathways exist: surface runoff and spray drift. Each of these pollution pathways may lead in principle to unacceptable predicted exposure concentrations in the receiving water body. Consequently, suitable ...

The Laboratory of Computational Science and Data (CDS Lab)

2015
The aim of Computational and Data Lab is to develop algorithms, models and software tools to detect, understand and design scientific and tecnologic solutions through the analysis of data obtained from experiments and tests, and/or through simulation of the processes generating them, dealing with new scientific challanges and multidisciplinary activities, related to ICT. Its activity is focused on the resolution of real problems with methodologies spanning from computer simulation, to scientific ...

The Laboratory of Cognitive Robotics and Social Sensing

2015
Human activities and the environments in which they occur (real or virtual) are perceived in an increasingly sophisticated manner by artificial agents, and they can trigger complex interactions with "intelligent" software agents or "autonomous"robot. The research activities aims to study new architectures and methodologies to better manage the cycle "perception-understanding-action" of artificial autonomous systems, taking inspiration also from human cognitive models. The perception usually ...

The Laboratory of Computational Intelligence (CI Lab)

2015
The Cognitive Systems Lab is aimed at studying and realizing cognitive systems of new generation, able to learn, reason, and pervasively engage with humans in a natural, personalized, reactive and/or proactive way. Theoretical, experimental, and applied research activities will be aimed at designing and implementing cognitive systems able to: i) engage individually or collectively with humans by combining advanced visualization techniques with adaptive and proactive multi-modal mechanisms based ...

The Laboratory of Advanced Analytics on Complex Data (ADA Lab)

2015
ICAR laboratory ADA Lab conducts research in the area of Behavior Computing, a discipline aimed at modelling and analysing the behavior of heterogeneous entities in their environment. Behavior Computing is an important topic in different contexts including: consumer analytics, social computing, fraud detection, and group decision-making. The goal of ADA Lab in this context is twofold. First, defining mathematical models that allow to analyse, understand, and predict actions made by entities in ...

The Laboratory of Translational Bioinformatics (TB Lab)

2015
Translational Bioinformatics is an emergent field of health informatics that addresses the application of the scientific discoveries and technological innovations from the laboratories to the clinical practice. In the last decade, this area has seen a rising interest among the scientific community due to the development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques that allowed the availability of increasingly voluminous amounts of genomic data. In this context, the main objective of the TBLab ...

Membrane transport as the main cell organizer

2015
Il trasporto cellulare mediante vescicole opera, secondo gli stessi principi generali, in organismi differenti quali uomo e lievito. Tale sistema è cruciale per una serie di processi fisiologici in cui la fusione delle vescicole deve avvenire sotto stretto controllo, mediante il rilascio di ormoni e citochine. Difetti nel trasporto si traducono in vari tipi di malattie tra cui una serie di disturbi neurologici ed immunologici. Il simposio di una giornata organizzato dall'Istituto di Biochimica ...

Impronte del traffico mobile nei tessuti urbani

2015
Nel 2014, 6,7 miliardi di telefoni cellulari hanno generato oltre due exabyte di dati relativi a una vasta gamma di servizi di telefonia mobile, tra cui la navigazione web, il social networking, video streaming, storage online ed il gioco on-line. Questa enorme quantità di attività può essere monitorato e geo-referenziata dagli operatori di telefonia mobile e divenire una fonte di informazioni senza precedenti su grandi popolazioni di individui. L'analisi dei dati di traffico di telefonia ...

Automated Inclinometer System (AIS) for deep-seated ground deformation measurements

2015
An innovative robotized inclinometer system for inclinometer measurements to evaluate deep-seated ground deformations in standard boreholes. Our AIS (Automated Inclinometer System) allows for fully automatic inclinometer measurements in standard boreholes. The deep measurements have multiple applications, including (i) evaluating the rate of deep-seated ground deformation in landslide areas, (ii) evaluating the volume of deep-seated landslides, and (ii) assessing landslide hazards. The AIS is ...

Un nuovo tipo di luce

2015
Esistono alcuni gamberetti che riescono a vedere la luce con una dimensione in più rispetto a noi per individuare meglio il quasi invisibile plancton. Infatti la luce, oltre al colore dato dalla propria energia, ha un'altra proprietà di cui normalmente non è facile rendersi conto: la polarizzazione, ossia la direzione e il modo in cui il campo elettromagnetico oscilla nel propagarsi alla velocità della luce. Uno studio pubblicato sulla rivista 'Light Science & Applications' propone e ...

Spontaneous Oxidation of Ni Nanoclusters on MgO Monolayers Induced by Segregation of Interfacial Oxygen

2015
The growing interest in metal nanoparticles (NP) is related to their increasing importance for a series of applications, ranging from nanoelectronics to magnetism, pharmaceutics (e.g. for biological labeling) and catalysis. It is now well established that the NPs' properties depend critically on their size and shape1-3 and that some peculiar geometries may appear when reducing the cluster size4. In spite of the vast literature on the topic, most of the attention has concentrated so far on metal ...

Towards an Oriental Hegemony? A comparison between China and India

2015
It is already two decades that there is an evident re-distribution of economic power among the Triad (North America, Europe and Japan) and new emerging economies. Trends in the international trade and FDI show how economic activities in the Triad are threatened by countries such as China and India. Both nations have huge population and they are more and more crucial economic partners in the new and multi-polar world economy. To which extent the economic activities of these two emerging areas are ...

Gli straordinari poteri delle cozze

2015
Era già noto da tempo che la cozza fosse fonte preziosa di principi antiossidanti, proteine nobili, vitamine e sali minerali, potente antinfiammatorio naturale e cibo afrodisiaco, ed era già altrettanto noto che la sua 'bava' fosse una colla dotata di superpoteri. Nessuno però si era spinto fino ad oggi a studiare il comportamento delle sue proteine per misurare la portata di questa 'appiccicosità'. L'insolita ricerca, pubblicata su Nature Communication, è stata condotta dai ricercatori ...

Probing deformed commutators with macroscopic harmonic oscillators

2015
The continual progress of physics provides an insight ever deeper of the Universe, and also to have new technologies, but at the same time place us in front to new and new demands. One of the open questions in physics is to reconcile the two most successful theories of physics, Einstein's general relativity and quantum physics, which work perfectly, but in completely different fields. General relativity explains gravity and the universe at large scale, astronomical and cosmological, and at the ...

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION PLAN FOR REDUCTION OF THE EMISSION OF GREENHOUSE GASES IN VALLE CAUDINA AREA

2015
The climate changes related to CO2 emission from combustion of fossil fuels increased more and more in the last 50 years. According to Protocol of Doha, extending the Protocol of Kyoto, the European Union decided 20% (or even more) reduction of CO2 emission levels of 1990 by 2020. The Covenant of Mayors is a European movement where local/regional authorities, voluntarily commit to increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy. In this framework the Istituto di Ricerche sulla ...

Tumors grow with the alternative splicing process

2015
Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the CNR of Pavia, IFOM and the Department of Biosciences of the University of Milan, have shown that the protein Nova2, until now considered only present in the brain, is also expressed by the cells of the blood vessels and is directly related to their development. The study, published in Nature Communications, was supported by AIRC - Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro. The formation of new blood vessels, a process called ...

Systems Medicine Roadmap in IFC

2015
Systems medicine is a flourishing discipline that stimulates widespread research interests. The highlighted map in Fig.1 presents a health ecosystem, which is a connected community of living and non-living elements whose cooperation forms a complex space of relations, decisions and actions. The wealth of health- and disease-related data from biomedical, environmental, clinical and social studies is the product of such ecosystem, which continues to generate new challenges together with ...

Down syndrome: deficiencies in DNA repair of oxidative damage

2015
Down syndrome, also known as Trisomy 21, is associated, albeit with varying severity, with intellectual disability, premature aging, propensity to develop a disease similar to Alzheimer's, and the onset of some types of leukemia. Several studies have associated this phenotype with increased oxidative stress. A research conducted by a team of IGM researchers coordinated by Ennio Prosperi, in collaboration with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the University of Pavia, have shown that ...

A passive imaging technique based on pre-existing wireless systems

2015
Device-free radio vision is an augmented functionality provided by radio transceivers - typically heterogeneous, densely distributed and networked - that monitor the fluctuations of the electromagnetic (EM) field across the space. These monitoring devices may be pre-existing, deployed at arbitrary (or optimized) locations for communication purposes in the area of interest, and exchange digital information by any wireless communication protocol. Radio vision systems leverage diffraction, ...

Notch is a direct negative regulator of the DNA-damage response

2015
Il DNA è costantemente minacciato nella sua integrità. A proteggerlo o a rimediare quando viene danneggiato ci pensa il cosiddetto DNA damage response, che provvede a prevenire che venga danneggiato e a ripararlo se questo accade. Nella genesi tumorale l'attivazione di un oncogene è un evento necessario. In passato abbiamo scoperto che gli oncogeni danneggiano il DNA sottoponendolo ad una replicazione "eccessiva", non regolata e perciò prona alla rottura. Abbiamo recentemente scoperto che un ...

SEGNO E PAROLA Carlo Lorenzetti e il Lessico Intellettuale Europeo

2015
Segno e parola is the title of the exhibition organized by the Istituto per il Lessico Intellettuale Europeo e Storia delle Idee (ILIESI) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, to celebrate its 50 years of research activities.  The event has been organized in collaboration with the Istituto Centrale per la Grafica in Rome and it is dedicated to the works of Carlo Lorenzetti, sculptor and engraver. Since the mid-eighties, the art of Carlo Lorenzetti has been associated with the most ...

Environmental chemical agents and carcinogenesis

2015
The role of low doses of chemicals or chemical mixtures in carcinogenesis is still an open research field. On June 23rd of this year, the Journal Carcinogenesis published a special issue on this topic entitled "Assessing the Carcinogenic Potential of Low Dose Exposures to Chemical Mixtures in the Environment" (http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/Suppl_1?etoc), result of the work of 174 researchers working on cancer research in several and prominent institutions all over the world. The ...

Discovery of a new submarine hydrothermal system off Zannone Island (western Pontine Archipelago, Tyrrhenian Sea)

2015
A giant depression (0.5 km2) associated with hydrothermal activity has been recently discovered, on the seafloor surrounding Zannone Island (western Pontine Archipelago, Tyrrhenian Sea) at water depth ranging between 110 and 130 m, by CNR-IGAG researchers. This depression has been studied through very high resolution bathymetric data in the framework of the MaGIC project (http://www.magicproject.it/). Successively, during the research cruise "BOLLE 2014" aboard of the Urania R/V the site has ...

Seismic microzonation

2015
The location of Italian Peninsula at the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates, makes it a Country with high level of seismic hazard. The relationship between the damage and the energy released by earthquakes is much stronger in Italy than in other Countries with high seismicity, such as California or Japan. This is mainly because our Country is characterized by the presence of historical centers with buildings that often are not adequate to support seismic forces. Our historical ...