Focus

Material culture and society: processes of recognition, analysis and interpretation.Roman archaeology and material culture: directions and prospects

2016
The study of Roman archaeology today, in the international research context, reflects demands which appear strictly related to the aspect of archaeology under investigation, whether it is a specific class of artefacts, a region, an urban or rural environment, or even political, social and ideological movements which find their concrete expression in the material traces of the society being examined. The category of pottery represents a particular case in point, inasmuch as the significant amount ...

Archaeometry of materials

2016
The characterization of materials in the Cultural Heritage field cannot always be carried out by means of traditional chemical and mineralogical analysis, because the necessary removal of material could irreversibly damage the object of study. For more than ten years, the IBAM has been pursuing the development of innovative analytical techniques. In 2001, at the IBAM office of Catania, the LANDIS was created (Non-Destructive Analysis Laboratory) with the aim of establishing new devices and ...

Technologies and tools for the diagnosis and conservation of Cultural Heritage.Diagnosis, products and procedures for the conservation of built heritage

2016
The conservation of built heritage requires detailed knowledge of the characteristics of its constituent materials and their state of conservation, making it possible to identify risk factors and conditions as well as the need for specific measures. On the basis of this knowledge the most effective intervention strategies and the most suitable conservation solutions can be selected. Over the years, IBAM, in its own diagnostic and conservation laboratories, has studied the causes and mechanisms ...

Understanding of materials used in historical, architectural and archaeological artefacts

2016
Until a few years ago, the study of the constituent materials of historical, architectural and archaeological heritage items was mainly focused on diagnostics for conservation purposes, based on the theory of restoration promoted by Cesare Brandi according to which knowledge of materials is necessary for their effective conservation. Recently, complex, multilevel systems of knowledge have been developed; useful to tourists and experts alike, they are designed to enhance the overall understanding ...

On-site non invasive diagnostics and monitoring for the study, conservation and restoration of historical built heritage

2016
Non-invasive monitoring of historical buildings is an important tool for the safeguard of the Cultural Heritage. In particular, thanks to geophysical techniques based on the propagation of electromagnetic or acoustical waves, or based on the redistribution of applied electrical currents, it is possible within certain limits to retrieve the internal conformation of the probed structures. This approach, in addition to allowing an archaeological analysis of the construction technique of the ...

Energy, natural and built environment: the architectural heritage between past and present and future energy challenges

2016
The EC Action Plan for Energy Efficiency and the Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings identifies energy efficiency in the building sector as a top priority. In order to achieve its ambitious goals, the new perspective introduced by the Directive requires action not only by imposing limits on energy consumption in new buildings, but also dealing with a significant acceleration in improving the energy performance of existing buildings, including historical ones. Given the ...

Technologies and tools for understanding, documentation and communication of Cultural Heritage.Virtual scenarios and cognitive metaphors for cultural tourism and scientific communication

2016
Every hypothetical reconstruction that can serve as a vehicle of information - not only on what can be viewed directly, but also and especially on those elements that are difficult to read or decipher - is consistent with the principles expressed in the restoration charters. The highlighting of educational value of ruins and making them comprehensible are, as we have seen, objectives common to both restoration and virtual archaeology. Based mainly on digital technology, the latter resolves the ...

Italy-China project about UNESCO Recommendation concerning the "Historic Urban Landscape"

2016
The project born from a Protocollo d'Intesa (MoU) signed in 2013 between the Institute for Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage of the National Research Council (CNR-ICVBC) and the World Heritage Institute of Training and Research for the Asia and the Pacific Region under the auspices of UNESCO (WHITRAP-UNESCO) on the implementation of the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the "Paesaggio Storico Urbano - Historic Urban Landscape - HUL" and it focuses on the future of small historic ...

Nucleus/cytoplasm/mitochondria crosstalk in cellular homeostasis

2016
Objective of this research is the study of signaling pathways and mitochondrial metabolism in different models of neuro¬degenerative/neurodevelopmental diseases and in cancer. The delicate balance between cell death and proliferation is essential to the genesis of various pathologies and the mi¬tochondria are proving to be the key factors in regulating: cell growth and death, intracellular signaling and integration of stress signals. The targets of this research concern: mi¬tochondria-nucleus ...

Study of molecular biodiversity for the development of innovative product and processes

2016
This research activity include the following research topics: 1) Development of bioinformatics methodologies and spe¬cialized databases for taxonomic analysis and functional characterization of "omics" data. 2) Structural and functional annotation of the genome and study of the mechanisms of regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, viruses and organ¬elles (mitochondria and chloroplasts) through High-Through¬put Sequencing (HTS) technology and advanced ...

Percorsi tra le storie di Cogoleto

2016
ICVBC-CNR é partner del progetto "Percorsi tra le storie di Cogoleto", vincitore del bando "In ITINER@" finanziato dalla Compagnia di San Paolo di Torino. Le iniziative proposte hanno finalità nell'ambito turistico in particolare per la valorizzazione dell'offerta culturale con la creazione di un percorso tra le peculiarità storico-artistiche del territorio. Nell'ambito del progetto si prospetta un intervento all'interno della chiesa di S. Maria Addolorata dell'Ex-Ospedale Psichiatrico di ...

Precious art analysed without damage using new laser technique.

2016
Precious works of art in need of preservation or authentication could in future be studied using a new laser technique, developed by a collaboration of UK and Italian scientists, that can analyse layers of paint without causing any damage to the object itself. This new technique will be of real benefit to curators of cultural heritage who need to preserve and authenticate precious works of art without harming them. UK and Italian scientists have, for the first time, tested this laser technique ...

Diagnostic for the study of alloys and precious metals: consultations for the study of objects of ancient and modern jewelery

2016
The Institute for Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage (ICBVBC - CNR) offers advice for the study of objects of ancient and modern jewelery, by means of multianalytical and non-invasive techniques. The elemental analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), for example, is able to provide compositional information of constituent material of the object, characterizing the alloy and executive technique. The technique is based on the registration of the characteristic fluorescence emitted by ...

Diagnostics on Italian paintings preserved at the North Carolina Museum of Art, Releigh-USA

2016
The research team of ICVBC together with Gwenelle Kavich (Smithsonian Institution MCI), Adele de Cruz (Department of Biology and Chemistry, Duke University), Bill Brown (North Carolina Museum of Art), Nick Barbi (XGLab) is disclosing the secrets of Italian masters' paintings at North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh-USA, by using several mobile instruments included the new XRF by XGLab. The North Carolina Museum of Art houses a permanent collection of Italian paintings from the fourteenth to ...

Imaging of brain TSPO expression in a mouse(model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with 18F-DPA-714 and micro-PET/CT.

2016
The feasibility and sensitivity of the TSPO radiotracer 18F-DPA-714 for the study of microglial activation in the brain and spinal cord of transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a model of ALS, was evaluated using high-resolution PET/CT and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that a significant increase in 18F-DPA-714 uptake can be measured with high-resolution PET/CT in the brainstem of symptomatic SOD1G93A mice as compared to WT SOD1 mice. Moreover, immunostaining revealed that TSPO expression was ...

Stimuli-sensitive nano-carriers based on the human ferritin for cancer therapy

2016
Striking and eradicate cancer cells without damaging healthy tissue, how? The answer comes from nanomedicine. The research team led by Dr. Ceci is developing "smart" nano-carriers capable of carrying large amounts of anticancer drugs, directing them selectively towards neoplastic cells. The selective delivery to cancer sites is a critical issue in the outcome of currently used cancer therapeutics that distribute non-specifically in the body, thereby damaging healthy as well as cancer cells. ...

Diffusion volume (DV) measurement in endometrial and cervicalcancer: A new MRI parameter in the evaluation of the tumor gradingand the risk classification

2016
A new MRI parameter representative of active tumor burden, the diffusion volume (DV), is proposed in the evaluation of histological grade (G1/G2/G3) and risk classification (low/medium/high-risk) of patients with cervical and endometrial cancer. DV is defined as the sum of the voxels within a tumor with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values enclosed in a specific range and associated to higher cellular density. A semi-automated segmentation procedure was used to calculate the DV. A ...

ICb & AutismAid

2016
On February 2016 the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry (CNR) and AutismAid signed a collaboration agreement for the realization of divulgation and formation activities concerning biomolecular chemistry, aimed to support the social inclusion of children with autism. AutismAid is a not-for-profit association of parents and volunteers committed to defending the rights of autistic people. The Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry is committed to chemical study of biological systems and processes to ...

Graphene nanoribbons

2016
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) - strips of graphene few tens of nanometers wide - are good candidates for next-generation graphene based electronics. At the Istituto Nanoscienze of CNR (CnrNano) a research focus is dedicated to the study of structural, electronic, optical and vibrational properties of graphene nanoribbons with theoretical approaches that are developed in collaboration with leading experimental research groups. One of the recent results achieved in the field, is the first ...

Nerve growth factor eye drops improves visual loss in childhood optic

2016
The encouraging results of a phase II randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial testing the use of NGF in patients with severe optic pathway gliomas, were published in the prestigious journal Brain. The study was conducted at the Policlinico A. Gemelli in Rome by Antonio Chiaretti (Assistant Professor of Pediatrics), Benedetto Falsini (Associate Professor of Ophthalmology) and Riccardo Riccardi (Professor of Pediatric Oncology of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart) in ...

Hydrogen Generator for Fuel Cell

2016
The question of the worlwide climate modification, due to the human emissions (i.e. greehnouse gas) is alwais more stringent: Europe consumes more petroleum for transportation than for any other energy use; transportation is responsible for about half of the smog forming pollutants in our cities, for up to 90% of the carbon monoxide, and for more than half of the toxic air pollutants. The need to accelerate the development of the technologies able to reduce the effect of the human activity ...

Svelato il ruolo centrale del metabolismo nel funzionamento dei linfociti t umani

2016
Il meccanismo molecolare che controlla la funzionalità dei linfociti T dell'uomo è stato chiarito da una ricerca scientifica condotta dal gruppo del Prof. Giuseppe Matarese del Dipartimento di medicina molecolare e biotecnologie mediche dell'Università di Napoli 'Federico II' in collaborazione con il Laboratorio di proteomica dell'Itb-Cnr e il Laboratorio di immunologia dello Ieos-Cnr. I risultati dello studio sono stati pubblicati sulla prestigiosa rivista Immunity. I linfociti T umani sono ...

Towards a new field of physics: Coherent Caloritronics

2016
Quantum electronics is now a mature field of physics in the sense that its basis is well understood, and in that it is a natural playground to develop quantum technology. Despite this tremendous success in both the understanding and harnessing of charge transport, very little is known regarding the quantum properties of heat transport. The COHERENT CALORITRONICS group at CnrNano activity aims at strengthening the understanding of phase-coherent heat transport in mesoscopic superconducting ...

Highlights 2016

2016
Highlights 2016 (see for details www.SPIN.CNR.it) Superconductivity: Physical Review - R. Citro, P. Marra, A. Braggio. Carbon - R. Fittipaldi, M. Salvato, C. Cirillo, A. Vecchione, C. Attanasio. Physical Review - A. Leo, P. Marra, G. Grimaldi, R. Citro, S. Kawale, E. Bellingeri, C. Ferdeghini, S. Pace, A. Nigro. Scientific Reports - S. Pagano, G. Carapella, P. Sabatino, C. Barone. Topical Review in Superconductor Science and Technology - I. Pallecchi, F. Caglieris, M. ...

Rotation of the polarization and easy shear cooperate to boost the piezoelectric effect

2016
Ferroelectrics are materials exhibiting spontaneous polarization and strain below the Curie temperature, so that the application of an electric field produces a deformation and the application of a stress produces an electric field, the so-called piezoelectric effect. For sensor and actuators it is desired that the magnitude of the piezoelectric effect is maximized, and this is often the case near transitions between ferroelectric phases whose spontaneous polarizations are in different ...

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

2016
More than 30 years ago, Glauber theorized the existence of quantum systems to explain the link between the reversible microscopic and irreversible macroscopic scale. The formulation of such model is based on the so-called "rigged Hilbert space" and include irreversibility as a fundamental principle through the introduction of an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifier. The standard quantum mechanics does not forbid time-travel. However, according to the Glauber theory a quantum ...

Diffusion, what else?

2016
Diffusion essentially refers to a motion which leads to the spreading of some quantity: density of particles, energy, and so on. It owes its universality to the central limit theorem, according to which che combination of independent, random events has general features not related to the details of the single events. For example, in a standard, diffusive motion the spreading quantity does not vary proportionally to the time, but its variation may double only if time quadruples! If however the ...

SPIKY

2016
SPIKY (Kreuz et al., 2015) is a graphical user interface written in Matlab which facilitates the analysis of electrophysiological data such as the EEG and neuronal spike trains (sequences of electrical action potentials emitted by neurons). In addition to the standard Peri-Stimulus Time Histogram (PSTH) it contains several time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony which were all developed in our lab: ISI-distance, SPIKE-distance, and SPIKE synchronization. For a given data set SPIKY ...

IRSIG FOCUS

2016
The effectiveness, efficiency and quality of judicial systems are cornerstones of democracy and they are of paramount importance for the economic competitiveness of every country, as recently also emphasized by the "EU Justice Agenda for 2020" of the European Commission. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for "research capacity" to improve functioning and performance of justice systems, with a specific interest in efficiency, length of proceedings, quality of decisions, court management, ...