Focus

Studio dei microRNA come effettori e regolatori del pathway delle MAP chinasi in melanoma

2016
L'Unità di Oncogenomica della Dott.ssa Poliseno ha sede ad IFC ed è parte del Core Research Laboratory dell'ITT (http://www.ittumori.it/). L'Unità è stata costituita tramite un finanziamento start up erogato dall'ITT nel 2012 e si occupa di studiare il ruolo svolto dai microRNA, piccole molecole di RNA a singolo filamento, come effettori e come regolatori del pathway delle MAP chinasi. Tale pathway, composto dalle proteine RAS, RAF, MEK e ERK, è quello più frequentemente alterato in ...

BIOTECHNOLOGY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT OF DNA-BASED NANOMATERIALS

2016
A synergic collaboration between soft-matter physicists and molecular biologists of nucleic acid has yielded the realization of a new nano-material, DNA-hydrogel, liquid at low and high temperatures (≤20°C, > 45°C) and gelifies at 32/40°C. The liquid DNA hydrogel at 20°C can be easily injected into the organism and then quickly gelifies at body temperature (37°C). The abilty to gelify at 37°C is the starting point for the design and development of novel DNA-hydrogels as carriers ...

Mitochondrial carriers: structure and functional mechanisms

2016
This research activity is involved in the identification and in the functional and structural characterization of mitochon¬drial membrane transporters belonging to the family SLC25 known as "mitochondrial carrier family (MCF)". Main research topics are: i) study of the relationship between structure and function of mitochondrial carriers; ii) effects of either endogenous and xenobiotic molecules on the transport activity, mediated by mitochondrial carriers; iii) identification of the catalytic ...

Biogenesis of Membranes for Energy Transduction

2016
Particular attention is given to the study of mitochondri¬al biogenesis and its regulation under physiopathological conditions. Indeed, mitochondria, organelles equipped with membranes for energy transduction, have a pivotal role in the cell response to various kind of stress. The following topics are studied in detail: i) molecules of the mitochondrial membrane, such as cardiolipin, ii) aspects of mitochondrial bioenergetics under physiopathological and metabolic con¬ditions; iii) ...

Biomembrane bioenergetics system: functional mechanism and pathophysiology

2016
1. Regulation of expression, structure and assembly of mem¬brane energy transducing systems of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In this contest, the signal transduction and second messen¬gers, in particular cAMP, play an important role in regulating the biogenesis and functional capacity of membrane ener¬gy transducing systems and oxygen free radical balance in physiological and pathological conditions. Another area in¬volves the study of energy transducing systems in microor¬ganisms of ...

BACTERIA SECRET WEAPONS

2016
Bacteria are highly adaptable and can live in very hostile environments. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a small gas molecule produced by bacteria in our intestine, and is a powerful inhibitor of cellular respiration by blocking the enzyme responsible for oxygen consumption in human cells. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that some enzymes help bacteria to produce energy and survive despite the presence of acid, often damaging human health. The team led by Ibpm, in collaboration ...

AMICA (Analysis of the oral microbiome during hormonal cycle and its alterations in menopausal women) project

2016
AMICA (Analysis of the oral microbiome during hormonal cycle and its alterations in menopausal women) is a project proposed by young ICB-CNR women researchers, directed by Dr. Fabiana Piscitelli, which aims to analyze and characterize the women salivary microbiome in function of changes in hormone levels (FSH, LH, progesterone and estradiol) during menstruation and menopause. For this reason, it is enlisting women volunteers of childbearing age and menopause between 25-70 years. Two are the main ...

ICb & AutismAid

2016
On February 2016 the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry (CNR) and AutismAid signed a collaboration agreement for the realization of divulgation and formation activities concerning biomolecular chemistry, aimed to support the social inclusion of children with autism. AutismAid is a not-for-profit association of parents and volunteers committed to defending the rights of autistic people. The Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry is committed to chemical study of biological systems and processes to ...

Graphs, diamonds and words Recognizing diamond-free balanced graphs via Dyck words.

2016
Sometimes, under certain circumstances, we know that problems that are in general hard to solve become easy for certain input instances. Of course, we have to be able to recognize such "lucky instances"and therefore we have to be able to characterize their "lucky properties" and exploit the characterization to devise efficient recognition algorithms. In other words we have to be able to answer the following question efficiently: "Is this instance a lucky one"; if the answer is yes then we are ...

Refitting: ship design review after building. An example of application of an optimization algorithm for continuous constrained optimization to naval design

2016
Production of a ship is a very complex task, representing the synthesis of an intense design activity: all the relevant parameters affecting the mission of the ship are considered in this phase. However, some of these parameters are changing in time, i.e. the payload may increase or reduce due to the different market demands: if the variations are not negligible, a review of the project could be economically advantageous after some years, identifying a modification of the hull able to produce an ...

Diagnostics on Italian paintings preserved at the North Carolina Museum of Art, Releigh-USA

2016
The research team of ICVBC together with Gwenelle Kavich (Smithsonian Institution MCI), Adele de Cruz (Department of Biology and Chemistry, Duke University), Bill Brown (North Carolina Museum of Art), Nick Barbi (XGLab) is disclosing the secrets of Italian masters' paintings at North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh-USA, by using several mobile instruments included the new XRF by XGLab. The North Carolina Museum of Art houses a permanent collection of Italian paintings from the fourteenth to ...

Diagnostic for the study of alloys and precious metals: consultations for the study of objects of ancient and modern jewelery

2016
The Institute for Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage (ICBVBC - CNR) offers advice for the study of objects of ancient and modern jewelery, by means of multianalytical and non-invasive techniques. The elemental analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), for example, is able to provide compositional information of constituent material of the object, characterizing the alloy and executive technique. The technique is based on the registration of the characteristic fluorescence emitted by ...

Precious art analysed without damage using new laser technique.

2016
Precious works of art in need of preservation or authentication could in future be studied using a new laser technique, developed by a collaboration of UK and Italian scientists, that can analyse layers of paint without causing any damage to the object itself. This new technique will be of real benefit to curators of cultural heritage who need to preserve and authenticate precious works of art without harming them. UK and Italian scientists have, for the first time, tested this laser technique ...

Percorsi tra le storie di Cogoleto

2016
ICVBC-CNR é partner del progetto "Percorsi tra le storie di Cogoleto", vincitore del bando "In ITINER@" finanziato dalla Compagnia di San Paolo di Torino. Le iniziative proposte hanno finalità nell'ambito turistico in particolare per la valorizzazione dell'offerta culturale con la creazione di un percorso tra le peculiarità storico-artistiche del territorio. Nell'ambito del progetto si prospetta un intervento all'interno della chiesa di S. Maria Addolorata dell'Ex-Ospedale Psichiatrico di ...

Ancient topography research and digital archaeological maps

2016
Many of the research activities that IBAM carry out in the field of archaeology assume that the priority and most urgent problem is undoubtedly the recognition and the evaluation of Cultural Heritage. It is a necessity of primary importance both for studies directed towards historical and archaeological reconstruction and, especially, to enable appropriate policies to be put in place for the protection, monitoring and management, which are essential for the conservation and enhancement of value ...

Airborne and spaceborne remote sensing for archaeology

2016
Since its foundation the IBAM has been very active in the application of airborne and spaceborne earth observation technologies in Archaeology. Two laboratories, one in Lecce and the second in Potenza, focus on aerial archaeology and the development and validation of image processing algorithms for archaeological applications, respectively. The research is developed in cooperation with Laboratory of Ancient Topography and Photogrammetry of the University of Salento and the Laboratory of Remote ...

Geological and Geomorphological risks and Cultural Heritage protection

2016
The Mediterranean area and particularly Italy, possesses an extraordinary material and immaterial Cultural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV, as defined by ICOMOS) that must be protected and preserved, with particular emphasis on monuments, such as historic buildings (churches, castles, palaces, historic town centres, archaeological sites) which represent the historical memory of phases of settlement in different geographical contexts. Over the last 20 years there has been a growing ...

Geophysics for archaeology

2016
Geophysical survey refers to multiple techniques that measure variation in near-surface physical properties of the ground, such as magnetic properties, electromagnetic conductivity, electrical resistivity, induced polarization, self potentials, relative dielectric constant and ground density. Buried features, like stone or brick foundations; variation in sedimentary structure and ground moisture, such as in archaeological deposits, trenches, mounds, and burial vaults; and other subsurface ...

Italy-China project about UNESCO Recommendation concerning the "Historic Urban Landscape"

2016
The project born from a Protocollo d'Intesa (MoU) signed in 2013 between the Institute for Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage of the National Research Council (CNR-ICVBC) and the World Heritage Institute of Training and Research for the Asia and the Pacific Region under the auspices of UNESCO (WHITRAP-UNESCO) on the implementation of the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the "Paesaggio Storico Urbano - Historic Urban Landscape - HUL" and it focuses on the future of small historic ...

Practical and legal issues in Preventive Archaeology

2016
All over Italy the requirements of economic development are rapidly destroying many archaeological sites - the character of this destructive activity and the solutions adopted vary among different countries. The studies conducted by ANTAR ES-LAB (ANcient Topography, Archaeology and REmote Sensing - LABoratory) and the Geophysics for Archaeology Laboratory of IBAM cover the institutional and legislative background, provide statistical data and information on each field activity of preventive ...

Che cosa sapeva Braccio di Ferro dei nitrati?

2016
Braccio di Ferro, con la sua tipica pipa permanentemente in bocca e gli avambracci nerboruti, è un uomo di mare dall'aspetto un po' buffo che si trova sovente in situazioni rissose con Bruto, imponente marinaio attaccabrighe dalla barba folta e nera. L'arma segreta di Braccio di Ferro sono gli spinaci, un alimento ricco di diverse sostanze nutritive tra cui i nitrati. Recenti studi scientifici suggeriscono che l'ossido nitrico, prodotto derivante dai nitrati, svolge diverse funzioni ...

Material culture and society: processes of recognition, analysis and interpretation. The many directions of Mediterranean Prehistory: voices and visions of the last ten years

2016
Scholars interested in Mediterranean prehistory share two expectations about the issue of Past: firstly that the accessible meanings reside not only in textual sources, and secondly that the study of world prehistory has acquired a privileged position in the current status of theoretical and methodological debates, adapting a wide range of scientific techniques to the resolution of cultural questions. It follows that in some important aspects, although the past must have changed through time, it ...

Material culture and society: processes of recognition, analysis and interpretation.Roman archaeology and material culture: directions and prospects

2016
The study of Roman archaeology today, in the international research context, reflects demands which appear strictly related to the aspect of archaeology under investigation, whether it is a specific class of artefacts, a region, an urban or rural environment, or even political, social and ideological movements which find their concrete expression in the material traces of the society being examined. The category of pottery represents a particular case in point, inasmuch as the significant amount ...

Archaeometry of materials

2016
The characterization of materials in the Cultural Heritage field cannot always be carried out by means of traditional chemical and mineralogical analysis, because the necessary removal of material could irreversibly damage the object of study. For more than ten years, the IBAM has been pursuing the development of innovative analytical techniques. In 2001, at the IBAM office of Catania, the LANDIS was created (Non-Destructive Analysis Laboratory) with the aim of establishing new devices and ...

Technologies and tools for the diagnosis and conservation of Cultural Heritage.Diagnosis, products and procedures for the conservation of built heritage

2016
The conservation of built heritage requires detailed knowledge of the characteristics of its constituent materials and their state of conservation, making it possible to identify risk factors and conditions as well as the need for specific measures. On the basis of this knowledge the most effective intervention strategies and the most suitable conservation solutions can be selected. Over the years, IBAM, in its own diagnostic and conservation laboratories, has studied the causes and mechanisms ...

Understanding of materials used in historical, architectural and archaeological artefacts

2016
Until a few years ago, the study of the constituent materials of historical, architectural and archaeological heritage items was mainly focused on diagnostics for conservation purposes, based on the theory of restoration promoted by Cesare Brandi according to which knowledge of materials is necessary for their effective conservation. Recently, complex, multilevel systems of knowledge have been developed; useful to tourists and experts alike, they are designed to enhance the overall understanding ...

On-site non invasive diagnostics and monitoring for the study, conservation and restoration of historical built heritage

2016
Non-invasive monitoring of historical buildings is an important tool for the safeguard of the Cultural Heritage. In particular, thanks to geophysical techniques based on the propagation of electromagnetic or acoustical waves, or based on the redistribution of applied electrical currents, it is possible within certain limits to retrieve the internal conformation of the probed structures. This approach, in addition to allowing an archaeological analysis of the construction technique of the ...

Energy, natural and built environment: the architectural heritage between past and present and future energy challenges

2016
The EC Action Plan for Energy Efficiency and the Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings identifies energy efficiency in the building sector as a top priority. In order to achieve its ambitious goals, the new perspective introduced by the Directive requires action not only by imposing limits on energy consumption in new buildings, but also dealing with a significant acceleration in improving the energy performance of existing buildings, including historical ones. Given the ...

Technologies and tools for understanding, documentation and communication of Cultural Heritage.Virtual scenarios and cognitive metaphors for cultural tourism and scientific communication

2016
Every hypothetical reconstruction that can serve as a vehicle of information - not only on what can be viewed directly, but also and especially on those elements that are difficult to read or decipher - is consistent with the principles expressed in the restoration charters. The highlighting of educational value of ruins and making them comprehensible are, as we have seen, objectives common to both restoration and virtual archaeology. Based mainly on digital technology, the latter resolves the ...

Neuropsichiatria: trovati nel cervello i "segni" anatomici della condotta antisociale

2016
Gli adolescenti con gravi comportamenti antisociali presentano evidenti anomalie cerebrali rispetto ai coetanei che non soffrono di questo disturbo: è quanto emerge da una ricerca recentemente pubblicata sulla rivista internazionale Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Lo studio è stato condotto dalle Università di Cambridge e Southampton in collaborazione con l'Università Tor Vergata e il Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR). I ricercatori che hanno partecipato allo studio ...