Focus

Landslides in the Solar System

2017
On Earth, landslides are hazardous phenomena often associated with economic damage and loss of human lives. The most common natural triggers of terrestrial landslides are intense or prolonged rainfall, earthquakes, rapid snow melting, and volcanic activity. But what are the main natural triggers of landslides on other solid bodies of the Solar System? Since the early 70's of the last century, landslides were observed on the surface of the Moon, Mars, Mercury and Venus, to mention only the ...

ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER N° 2-3 2017

2017
The new newsletter of the Institute, which has been totally renewed, is available online from 28 December 2017. Because of the restructuring, this issue reports on the activities carried out in the second and third four-month periods of 2017. Users can follow the information on past and future events, conferences and workshops that the Institute has organized or participated in. There are also updates on activities and research work under way as well as on publications and all the most recent ...

ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER N° 1 2017

2017
ISSIRFA NEWSLETTER N° 1 2017

Formal Methods for the Railway Sector

2017
Researchers from the Formal Methods and Tools group of ISTI-CNR are working on a review and assessment of the main formal modelling and verification languages and tools used in the railway domain, with the aim of evaluating the actual applicability of the most promising ones to a moving block signalling system model. The research is being conducted in the context of the EU H2020 Shift2Rail project ASTRail: SAtellite-based Signalling and Automation SysTems on Railways along with Formal Method ...

The Rights of Persons with Disabilities: the UN Convention and implementing Practice at international, European and national levels

2017
In the framework of the ISGI Project "Multilevel protection of human rights between international law, European law and domestic legal order", the volume The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. A Commentary edited by V. Della Fina, R. Cera, G. Palmisano, Springer, pp. XXXII- 765, ISBN 978-3-319-43788-0, also in the e-book version ISBN 978-3-319-43790-3, has been published (see https://www.springer.com/la/book/9783319437880 ). The book is the main scientific ...

The Secular Decay of the Semi-Major Axis of the Lares SatelliteLLITE

2017
The LAser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE) has the goal to carry out a sequence of measurements of relativistic effects using specific Earth-orbiting satellites for verifying the predictions of General Relativity and of alternatives theories proposed for the description of the gravitational interaction. These measurements are achieved in the so-called weak-field and slow-motion (WFSM) limit of the theory, by means of passive "cannonball" satellites tracked very precisely with the Satellite ...

Advanced multi-layer system based on surfaces and innovative nanostructured materials for a sustainable and energy-efficient construction

2017
In the last years, there has been a growing interest in the integrated use of innovative materials and ICT technologies to design a new concept of building, meeting the requirements of environmental compatibility and sustainability in terms of materials and energy. In the framework of the Tuscany Regional Project SELFIE, new technological components for buildings have been designed and implemented aiming at introducing new prototypical facade elements that can have a great impact on energy ...

Muscle Cell News

2017
The e-scientific newsletter Connexon Creative highlights as THIS WEEK'S TOP STORY the paper "Estrogens enhance myoblast differentiation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy by antagonizing DUX4 activity", result of a research carried out in our Institute (https://www.musclecellnews.com/issue/). Connexon Creative sifts through all of the most recent scientific literature and news, and selects the most relevant and highest impact publications on regenerative medicine. This week, it ...

Anticorpo monoclonale contro la leucemia mieloide acuta

2017
Su iniziativa del gruppo Menarini e di Oxford BioTherapeutics è stato sviluppato un anticorpo monoclonale, umanizzato, MEN1112 che è in grado di riconoscere ed eliminare cellule di leucemia mieloide acuta. Dopo una fase preclinica di studio e caratterizzazione, che ha dimostrato efficacia e tollerabilità, MEN1112 è stato ed è utilizzato in uno uno studio di tipo traslazionale nel quale l'anticorpo ha dimostrato promettente attività in campioni di sangue periferico e midollare di pazienti ...

Highlights 2017

2017
Highlights 2017 (see for details www.SPIN.CNR.it) Superconductivity Physical Review - R. Cristiano Physical Review - Z. J. Ying, M. Cuoco Physical Review Letters - A. Martinelli, P. Manfrinetti, A. Provino, F. Caglieris, G. Lamura, M. Putti Scientific Reports - C. Nappi, C. Camerlingo, E. Bellingeri, V. Braccini, C. Ferdeghini, E. Sarnelli Supercond. Sci. Technol. - I. Pallecchi, A. Leveratto, V. Braccini, V. Zunino, A. Malagoli Physical Review Materials - G. ...

Scientific report 2016-17

2017
Report of the Scientific activities for thee period 2016-17

Svelato il ruolo centrale del metabolismo nel funzionamento dei linfociti t umani

2016
Il meccanismo molecolare che controlla la funzionalità dei linfociti T dell'uomo è stato chiarito da una ricerca scientifica condotta dal gruppo del Prof. Giuseppe Matarese del Dipartimento di medicina molecolare e biotecnologie mediche dell'Università di Napoli 'Federico II' in collaborazione con il Laboratorio di proteomica dell'Itb-Cnr e il Laboratorio di immunologia dello Ieos-Cnr. I risultati dello studio sono stati pubblicati sulla prestigiosa rivista Immunity. I linfociti T umani sono ...

Highlights 2016

2016
Highlights 2016 (see for details www.SPIN.CNR.it) Superconductivity: Physical Review - R. Citro, P. Marra, A. Braggio. Carbon - R. Fittipaldi, M. Salvato, C. Cirillo, A. Vecchione, C. Attanasio. Physical Review - A. Leo, P. Marra, G. Grimaldi, R. Citro, S. Kawale, E. Bellingeri, C. Ferdeghini, S. Pace, A. Nigro. Scientific Reports - S. Pagano, G. Carapella, P. Sabatino, C. Barone. Topical Review in Superconductor Science and Technology - I. Pallecchi, F. Caglieris, M. ...

Diffusion, what else?

2016
Diffusion essentially refers to a motion which leads to the spreading of some quantity: density of particles, energy, and so on. It owes its universality to the central limit theorem, according to which che combination of independent, random events has general features not related to the details of the single events. For example, in a standard, diffusive motion the spreading quantity does not vary proportionally to the time, but its variation may double only if time quadruples! If however the ...

SPIKY

2016
SPIKY (Kreuz et al., 2015) is a graphical user interface written in Matlab which facilitates the analysis of electrophysiological data such as the EEG and neuronal spike trains (sequences of electrical action potentials emitted by neurons). In addition to the standard Peri-Stimulus Time Histogram (PSTH) it contains several time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony which were all developed in our lab: ISI-distance, SPIKE-distance, and SPIKE synchronization. For a given data set SPIKY ...

IRSIG FOCUS

2016
The effectiveness, efficiency and quality of judicial systems are cornerstones of democracy and they are of paramount importance for the economic competitiveness of every country, as recently also emphasized by the "EU Justice Agenda for 2020" of the European Commission. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for "research capacity" to improve functioning and performance of justice systems, with a specific interest in efficiency, length of proceedings, quality of decisions, court management, ...

Towards a new field of physics: Coherent Caloritronics

2016
Quantum electronics is now a mature field of physics in the sense that its basis is well understood, and in that it is a natural playground to develop quantum technology. Despite this tremendous success in both the understanding and harnessing of charge transport, very little is known regarding the quantum properties of heat transport. The COHERENT CALORITRONICS group at CnrNano activity aims at strengthening the understanding of phase-coherent heat transport in mesoscopic superconducting ...

Graphene nanoribbons

2016
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) - strips of graphene few tens of nanometers wide - are good candidates for next-generation graphene based electronics. At the Istituto Nanoscienze of CNR (CnrNano) a research focus is dedicated to the study of structural, electronic, optical and vibrational properties of graphene nanoribbons with theoretical approaches that are developed in collaboration with leading experimental research groups. One of the recent results achieved in the field, is the first ...

Nerve growth factor eye drops improves visual loss in childhood optic

2016
The encouraging results of a phase II randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial testing the use of NGF in patients with severe optic pathway gliomas, were published in the prestigious journal Brain. The study was conducted at the Policlinico A. Gemelli in Rome by Antonio Chiaretti (Assistant Professor of Pediatrics), Benedetto Falsini (Associate Professor of Ophthalmology) and Riccardo Riccardi (Professor of Pediatric Oncology of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart) in ...

Hydrogen Generator for Fuel Cell

2016
The question of the worlwide climate modification, due to the human emissions (i.e. greehnouse gas) is alwais more stringent: Europe consumes more petroleum for transportation than for any other energy use; transportation is responsible for about half of the smog forming pollutants in our cities, for up to 90% of the carbon monoxide, and for more than half of the toxic air pollutants. The need to accelerate the development of the technologies able to reduce the effect of the human activity ...

Rotation of the polarization and easy shear cooperate to boost the piezoelectric effect

2016
Ferroelectrics are materials exhibiting spontaneous polarization and strain below the Curie temperature, so that the application of an electric field produces a deformation and the application of a stress produces an electric field, the so-called piezoelectric effect. For sensor and actuators it is desired that the magnitude of the piezoelectric effect is maximized, and this is often the case near transitions between ferroelectric phases whose spontaneous polarizations are in different ...

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

2016
More than 30 years ago, Glauber theorized the existence of quantum systems to explain the link between the reversible microscopic and irreversible macroscopic scale. The formulation of such model is based on the so-called "rigged Hilbert space" and include irreversibility as a fundamental principle through the introduction of an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifier. The standard quantum mechanics does not forbid time-travel. However, according to the Glauber theory a quantum ...

Ultra-High-Density Magnetic Recording: Storage Materials and Media Designs

2016
Magnetic recording is presently the leading technology for mass data storage. Its dominant role has been reinforced by the success of cloud computing, which requires huge amounts of data to be stored and managed on a multitude of servers. Nonetheless, the hard-disk storage industry is presently at a crossroad as the current magnetic recording technologies are unable to achieve storage densities beyond 1Tbit/in2. Pushing the recording density to the terabit regime requires new storage materials, ...

Deep learning models for text to image retrieval

2016
Researchers of the Networked Multimedia Information System (NeMIS) laboratory of Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione "A. Faedo" in Pisa have developed a deep learning-based image search model that works by taking in input a short textual description of the image the user is looking for, e.g.: "a group of skiers in a sunny day". They implemented the actual search process as a similarity search in a visual feature space, by learning to translate a textual query into a deep neural ...

Deviant Communities in Social Media

2016
The structure of a social network is fundamentally related to the interests of its members. People assort spontaneously based on the topics that are relevant to them, forming social groups that revolve around different subjects. Online social media are also favorable ecosystems for the formation of topical communities centered on matters that are not commonly taken up by the general public because of the embarrassment, discomfort, or shock they may cause. Those are communities that depict or ...

A new criticality index for the objects abandoned in low earth orbit

2016
A common way to evaluate the latent long-term environmental impact of an orbiting object, refraining from running thousands of complex simulations based on quite uncertain scenario assumptions, is to devise an indexing scheme grounded on reasonable premises. The main advantage of these heuristic approaches is the adoption of simple to understand and simple to apply rules, while the main drawback is the lack of a validated cause-effect foundation, unavoidable if the uncertain, stochastic and ...

A Platform for Rule-based Personalization of Web Applications in Internet of Things Contexts of Use

2016
The design and development of flexible software able to match the many possible user needs and provide high quality user experience is a major open issue, further complicated by the recent explosion of mobile technology and the Internet of Things (IoT), which have highly increased the variability and heterogeneity of the possible contexts of use of smart applications. In this scenario, such applications need to address extremely contextualized user needs, thus their complete behaviour cannot be ...

Broad spectrum effects of natural phytochemicals on disease prevention and wellbeing

2016
Phytochemicals trigger cellular pathways leading to the prevention of pathological conditions associated with cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Although this positive association evidenced by interventional and observational studies is debated and subjected to criticism, biochemical and genetic studies on cellular and animal models on the mechanism(s) of action of phytochemicals provide a functional explanation of how and why a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can protect ...

Privacy Risk Assessment - Privacy-aware Ecosystem for Data Sharing

2016
We live in times of increasing opportunities of sensing and analysing data describing human activities at extreme detail and resolution. Unfortunately, this comes with unprecedented risks, since this data can be related to personal and sensitive information about individuals. Data are tipically stored in the databases of companies (e.g., telecom, insurance and retail companies), which use legal constraints on privacy as a reason for not sharing it with science and society at large. Clearly, this ...