Focus

Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in the atmospheric pollution studies

2002
Neutron activation analysis for trace elements characterization in the atmospheric pollution studies The monitoring of trace elements (TE) content in the atmospheric particulate furnishes additional information for assessing the air quality of our cities. Many TE of anthropogenic origin may constitute a potential risk for the population not only at level of threshold concentrations but also in terms of prolonged exposure to low levels. At the CNR Unit of Radiochemistry and ...

Computational methods for shape modeling

2002
The spread of new technologies leads to a crucial role for the modeling of 3D objects, and in particular for shape modeling, in many applications. Actually, most of the information our senses collect is visual and shape-oriented, and most of our knowledge about the physical world comes as a shape information: reasoning about shape is a common way of describing real objects in engineering, architecture, medicine, biology, physics, and in daily life. Geometric modeling has been a key research ...

Research on Italian migrations

2002
A global approach to the different forms of spatial mobility is one of the most promising research trends in migration studies. This approach is able to stress ties, relationships, similarities and dissimilarities between the different types of migration. Migration research at IRPPS move on this direction. The establishment of an Observatory on Italian migrants has the aim to use and improve the skills acquired in a field where IRPPS has an important tradition. The complexity of Italian ...

Good safe quality for foodstuff using ionising irradiation

2002
Foodstuffs treatment by ionisation is a safe tool to produce both a shelf-life extension and/or a food-borne disease control through the pathogenic population reduction/elimination. The main goal is therefore to guarantee the best safe quality of the product to be marketed by means of a restriction of the spreading risk ("cross-contamination") for several diseases having an alimentary origin. About 50 countries provide clearances for the treatment of more than 50 different types of foodstuffs ...

Low-T3 Syndrome. A strong prognostic predictor of death in patients with heart disease

2002
Clinical and experimental evidences have shown the important role of the endocrine function in the homeostasis of cardiovascular system. In particular, triiodothyronine (T3), the biologically active thyroid hormone, plays a critical role in modulating heart rate and cardiac contractility as well as arterial peripheral resistances. A typical pattern of an altered thyroid hormone metabolism characterized by low-T3 circulating levels (Low -T3 syndrome) has been described in patients with ...

The nitrogen Cycle and Effects on the oxidation of atmospheric trace species at high latitudes (NICE)

2002
NICE Measurements of atmospheric and snow nitrates and nitrites and their fluxes above the snow surface were made during two campaigns during spring 2001 at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard as part of the EU project "The NItrogen Cycle and Effects on the oxidation of atmospheric trace species at high latitudes" (NICE). Recent findings of NOx and HONO production in snow interstitial air showed that photochemical production of NOx in snow surfaces is sufficient to alter the composition of the ...

NPAH and the environment

2002
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (NPAH) and environment. Nitrated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) have been recognised as belonging to long-term toxic compounds and, on the other hand, were identified in several anthropogenic emissions and among by-products of photochemical smog: Therefore, in seventies and eighties they began subject of investigation in ambient air and emission products, although any regulation limited they release in the environment. Our institute, IIA-CNR, ...

Observing The Galaxy By Neutrinos And Gravitational Waves

2002
In 1987, the first observation of neutrinos from the gravitational collapse of a bleu giant in the Magellanic Clouds made the neutrino astrophysics an experimental science. Since then a number of different, more sensitive neutrino telescopes have been constructed and are observing the Galaxy, even in this moment, to search for the most catastrophic phenomena that occur in the universe. At the same time these phenomena as: supernovae, masses captured by black holes and merging binary stars, ...

Plasma researches at IFP

2002
The experimental and theoretical research activity of the Istituto di Fisica del Plasma "Piero Caldirola" is mainly focused on the physics of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with laboratory plasmas. Research in this field is essential in providing the means for plasma heating in magnetized plasmas in fusion devices and in developing diagnostic methods appropriate both to laboratory and space. The technological research is mainly dedicated to the use of plasma-materials interaction ...

GEOPHYSICS - Putting Meteorites on Ice

2002
Every year, scientists put on their mittens and collect meteorites in Antarctica. Of the roughly 37,000 meteorites listed as of 2002, about 30,000 come from Antarctica or, to be precise, the ice sheets covering that continent. Antarctica is the best place to collect meteorites because they accumulate on blue ice fields, upstream of topographic barriers. Meteorites fall and become buried in the ice; the ice flows; the ice slows and is lifted up near a barrier; finally, wind ablation exhumes and ...

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase gene polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease

2002
In the vascular endothelium, nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced from L-arginine by the enzyme endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS). NO plays a key role in the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, inhibits platelets and leukocytes adhesion to the endothelium, reduces vascular smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation and limits the oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins. Because of these multiple actions, NO plays a central role in maintaining normal ...

Genetic and functional analysis of tumors: study of both familiar and sporadic cases for the identification of new cancer genes and the assessment of a new molecular classification of tumors and cancer-prone diseases

2002
Identification of the genes that are mutated in cancer is a central aim of cancer research. It forms the foundation for understanding the biological abnormalities within neoplastic cells, provides information on the function of gene products, and sheds light on more complex questions such as the relationships between genes and biochemical pathways. Current strategies for the development of new therapeutic and preventive agents in cancer are increasingly dependent upon modulation of these ...

Identification of genes associated to multifactorial diseases and Quantitative Traits through the study of genetic isolates

2002
The Population Genetics Institute carries on since 1995 a multidisciplinary project for the identification of genes predisposing to multifactorial diseases and to complex traits. This project is conducted in the villages of the Ogliastra geographic isolate of central-eastern Sardinia. These villages are examined under the epidemiological, genealogical, genetic, molecular and statistical profile. The identification of genes associated to pathological phenotypes in such populations is ...

Identification of type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes.

2002
Type 2 diabetes is a very common disease in most countries around the word, and its prevalence is presently raising. The seriousness of type 2 diabetes "epidemics" depends on both the high mortality rate and the devastating morbidity of its complications. In addition, the economic costs of diabetes have become astonishing and can no longer be tolerated. Despite this huge burden, there is currently no cure for diabetes. Thus, efforts to prevent and ultimately to cure type 2 diabetes, the ...

From the Space Shuttle STS-107 insights in emulsion science and technology.

2002
In spite of the tragic conclusion of the scientific mission STS-107 of the shuttle Columbia, the results of some experiments have been saved, perhaps making less vain the Astronauts' sacrifice. One of the experiments is FAST (Facility for Adsorption and Surface Tension), conceived by the Department of Genoa of IENI and aimed at the investigation of the adsorption process of surfactants at liquid interfaces, which had a complete success. FAST houses two Capillary Pressure tensiometers to ...

Autofluorescence-based optical biopsy

2002
Autofluorescence as an intrinsic parameter of cell and tissue suitable for non-invasive, real-time diagnostic techniques. Most of the substances involved both in the organization and the functional-metabolic aspects of biological material can act as fluorophores, giving rise to a fluorescence emission under excitation at suitable wavelengths. The properties of this fluorescence signal are strictly related to the chemical nature and the concentration of the endogenous fluorophores, to their ...

Later ancient philosophy and civilization

2002
Greek philosophers and Christians, western and eastern civilizations, Latin and German peoples faced each other in Late Antiquity. The cultural and historical identity of Europe arose from such a confrontation. It can be aptly conceived of as a "clash of civilizations". The Istituto per il Lessico Intellettuale Europeo e Storia delle Idee, Sezione Pensiero Antico, conducts several researches on later ancient philosophy and its legacy in Latin, Byzantine and Arab traditions. The Sezione Pensiero ...

The Osservatorio neologico della lingua italiana (Onli)

2002
Neologismi quotidiani. Un dizionario a cavallo del millennio (1998-2003), the first volume to emerge from the Osservatorio neologico della lingua italiana, has been published in the series "Lessico Intellettuale Europeo", by Leo S. Olschki (Florence). The Osservatorio neologico della lingua italiana (Onli) is a research project by Giovanni Adamo e Valeria Della Valle begun in 1998, with the support of the Istituto per il lessico intellettuale europeo e la storia delle idee of the CNR (under the ...

Enzymes working at replication factories

2002
The survival of organisms depends on the accurate transmission of the genetic information from one cell to its daughters through a metabolic pathway called DNA replication. DNA replication occurs in vivo in an ordered and highly organized way to satisfy three main tasks: 1) DNA replication must occur in a specific moment of the cell cycle called S phase or synthesis phase 2) each DNA sequence must be duplicated once per cell cycle 3) the genetic information (determined by the nucleotide ...

Towards a hydrogen economy: the microscopic structure of liquid hydrogen

2002
In order to "see" what is infinitely small, man uses "eyes" that are made of electron, X-ray, or neutron beams. The use of neutrons, essential in some cases, has gained an increased importance in the last decades, and the role played by neutron spectroscopy is clearly summarised in the motivation of the 1994 Physics Nobel Prize awarded to two pioneers of this technique, Shull from USA and Brockhouse from Canada, for having helped to "understand where the atoms are and what the atoms do". ...

fruit quality assessed by highly sensitive methods for volatile organic compounds (voc) detection (pptv)

2002
The qualification of trade marks of agro-industrial products is consumer oriented with a growing demand of objective methods to assess production, preservation and market distribution methods. Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOC) in traces it's an approach that requires instrumentation adequate in sensitivity, selectivity and reliability. Solid state sensors give only a very limited answer to this demand. Our approach is based on the development of instrumentation based on mass ...

Optical Mammography

2002
Optical diagnosis of breast tumour has been of growing interest in the last few years due to its non invasive character and to the chance of obtaining information complementary to x-ray mammograms. In fact, the principal tissue components, as oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin, lipid and water, exhibit different light absorption properties in the spectral range from 600 nm to 1000 nm. Thus in principle, it is possible to distinguish different breast structures on the basis of their light ...

Multidisciplinary project for the study of the isolated populations ofthe National Park of Cilento and Vallo of Diano

2002
Maria Persico Multifactorial diseases like cardiovascular diseases, tumors, neurodegenerative disorders and diabetes are the more frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the undustrialized countries. One approach useful to identify loci and genes responsible for complex diseases takes advantage of populations of small villages that have been geographically isolated for centuries. In Italy many small villages have been isolated for centuries. We have initiated a project in twelve ...

Light from rare earths for optical telecom systems

2002
Rare earths are a group of chemical elements well known for their important spectroscopic properties and widely used as dopants of glass or crystalline matrices to constitute active materials. Neodymium is perhaps the most widely used rare earth in laser physics (when excited, it emits in the near-infrared region, at 1060 nm): one of the first solid-state lasers was a Nd:glass, and today Nd:YAG lasers are present both in research laboratories and in manufacturing companies worldwide. ...

Geological-geomorphological framework and site effects at San Giuliano

2002
Geological-geomorphological framework and site effects at San Giuliano di Puglia (CB) and othter localities struck by the seismic sequence of October-November 2002. Since Oct. 31 2002 a seismic sequence has affected a sector of the Molise Apennines between the Fortore and Biferno river valleys. Although the magnitude of the two main events (Ml 5.4 and 5.3) is lower than that of the large historical earthquakes of the Apennines, some villages experienced significant damage and casualties ...

The agricoltural reuse of reclaimed waste-waters sludges

2002
THE AGRICULTURAL REUSE OF RECLAIMED WASTE-WATERS SLUDGES The wide-spread technologies currently applied to the treatment of municipal waste waters involve high energetic consumptions and produce a huge quantity of sludges containing heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogenous agents as well as appreciable amount of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. The EU directives, namely EC 91/271/EEC, do not permit the spreading of waste waters sludges on the ground, whereas the ...

The Italian language in the new generation of Internet

2002
The Italian language in the new generation of Internet Even in the digital era, language remains the primary and most natural key to knowledge. In spite of the fact that English represented so far a kind of lingua franca of the Web, participation of national cultures to the development of the global information society can be measured through the quantity of documents in languages other than English available on the web. The steeply increasing amount of multilingual texts strongly ...

A Digital Library for the Humanities

2002
The Institute of Computational Linguistics (ILC) is historically in the van with respect to methodologies and tools for text processing, in particular for what concerns the area of "Digital Library for Social Sciences". One of the more interesting aspects of the Digital Library is represented by the word 'integration', both in the already well-known sense of 'multimedial integration' and in the sense of a fruitful co-operation among the various approaches to texts. In the last years, the ...

GENERATION OF DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN VITRO: AN OPTIMAL SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL NEURONS FOR GRAFTS TO RESTORE NIGROSTRIATAL PATHWAY IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF PARKINSONS DISEASE

2002
GENERATION OF DOPAMINERGIC (DA) NEURONS IN VITRO: AN OPTIMAL SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL NEURONS FOR GRAFTS TO RESTORE NIGROSTRIATAL PATHWAY IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE (PD). In mammals most DA neurons are located in the midbrain (MES), where they form the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways. They are involved in motor control, cognition and emotion, and are implicated in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and PD. DA progenitors are ...

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2002
Oggi le leghe a memoria di forma stanno conquistando nuovi spazi di mercato. Il settore dei dispositivi medicali di NiTi è attualmente uno dei più dinamici e quello con il più alto tasso di crescita. Il gruppo di ricerca che opera presso l'Unita' staccata di Lecco da anni e' impegnato nella sintesi e caratterizzazione di materiali metallici a memoria di forma, con particolare attenzione al sistema NiTi e fornisce semilavorati di materiali a memoria di forma per applicazioni nel settore ...