The processes of governance in the Mediterranean Countries

In the last decade, the common consideration on the role of the national governments in the processes of globalization and its role in the implementation of decentralization's policies has produced the development of new methodological approaches that overcome the hierarchical conception of the State, founded upon the principle of the authority. This new approach, given the multiplication of the actors and the levels of negotiation -international, national and local- implicates a new model of government called governance based on those organized structures that characterizes more and more the local societies and that interact and create partnerships among each others. In the industrialized countries while the debate on such topic is widespread, the knowledge of the structures and the strategies of governance in the developing countries is rather weak. It appears, therefore, important to appraise the impact of the network of Mediterranean Partner Countries actors on the governance and the role of the intermediate institutions to promote its effectiveness. The overall objective of the study consists of detect a measure of the effectiveness of the processes of governance, this is achieved through the analysis of two phenomenon: the system and the organization of the services of public utility, particularly the water sector, and the local practices of diffusion of the innovation; these two phenomenon have been chosen since they are linked to a wide variety of economic, political and social actors. The analysis of both phenomena is filtered through the study of the behaviour of the intermediate institutions. Their participative involvement in the definition and in the realization of the strategies of economic development is considered as finalized to increase the value of the decentralized cooperation. In this sense the study has to be seen as a way to encourage policy advises aimed at those involved in the formulation of policies of partnership to favour a codevelopment of the Mediterranean region. In particular the specific target is represented by both national and local public institutions as well as private enterprises of the two shores of the Mediterranean. The study makes use of three Maghreb countries -Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco-, and Italy, applying a comparative approach, through empirical analyses of the relative local productive systems focused on case studies areas that have homogeneous territorial and economic characteristics. The project, coordinated by the Dott.ssa Immacolata Caruso, thought in April 2002, has been implemented from the year 2003 thanks to EU funds. Partnership have been activated with the Sannio University and the University of Rome "Tor Vergata", as well as with the University of Tunis, the University of Oran and the Institute of Applied Economy of the University of Rabat, belonging to the Réseau Maghrébin pour l'Intégration de la Science et la Technologie dans le Développement au Maghreb based in the University of Lille.