New synthesis methods were set up exploiting the ability of biological
systems to store and transfer informations at a molecular level. Through
this approach, biomimetic composites based on collagen and hydroxyapatite
were prepared, directly nucleating HA nanocrystals on self-assembling
The obtained composites are perfectly corresponding to the natural
mineralised tissues (bone), with the mineral phase showing needle-shaped
morphology, nanometric size and crystallites orientation with the senarius
axis parallel to the long axis of the collagen fibers.
The chemical-physical interaction of HA with the collagen (non-existing in
composites prepared with conventional methods), surprisingly yields
chemical substitutions in the HA crystal lattice, like carbonate ions,
that make apatite much more soluble, like the natural one.
The osteoblasts adhere on these perfectly biomimetic composites as on a
natural bony matrix and set up much more rapidly exchange processes thanks
to the bioreabsorbability feature of these kinds of new apatites in
respect to the conventional one.