Focus

Scientific report 2016-17

2017
Report of the Scientific activities for thee period 2016-17

Nanomateriali avanzati con trasmissione caratteristica straordinaria

2017
Nell'ambito di uno studio realizzato in collaborazione tra due diversi istituti del CNR, ricercatori hanno sviluppato nuovi nanomateriali in oro con straordinarie capacità di trasmissione. La ricerca è stata pubblicata in ACS Nano (Impact Factor 13.942), una delle riviste più importanti e prestigiose al mondo nel settore delle nanotecnologie. La ricerca è stata condotta dal team CNR-Nanotec coordinato da Antonio De Luca in collaborazione con il team dell'ISASI-CNR coordinato da Lucia Petti ...

Highlights 2017

2017
Highlights 2017 (see for details www.SPIN.CNR.it) Superconductivity Physical Review - R. Cristiano Physical Review - Z. J. Ying, M. Cuoco Physical Review Letters - A. Martinelli, P. Manfrinetti, A. Provino, F. Caglieris, G. Lamura, M. Putti Scientific Reports - C. Nappi, C. Camerlingo, E. Bellingeri, V. Braccini, C. Ferdeghini, E. Sarnelli Supercond. Sci. Technol. - I. Pallecchi, A. Leveratto, V. Braccini, V. Zunino, A. Malagoli Physical Review Materials - G. ...

SPIKY

2016
SPIKY (Kreuz et al., 2015) is a graphical user interface written in Matlab which facilitates the analysis of electrophysiological data such as the EEG and neuronal spike trains (sequences of electrical action potentials emitted by neurons). In addition to the standard Peri-Stimulus Time Histogram (PSTH) it contains several time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony which were all developed in our lab: ISI-distance, SPIKE-distance, and SPIKE synchronization. For a given data set SPIKY ...

Graphene nanoribbons

2016
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) - strips of graphene few tens of nanometers wide - are good candidates for next-generation graphene based electronics. At the Istituto Nanoscienze of CNR (CnrNano) a research focus is dedicated to the study of structural, electronic, optical and vibrational properties of graphene nanoribbons with theoretical approaches that are developed in collaboration with leading experimental research groups. One of the recent results achieved in the field, is the first ...

Diffusion, what else?

2016
Diffusion essentially refers to a motion which leads to the spreading of some quantity: density of particles, energy, and so on. It owes its universality to the central limit theorem, according to which che combination of independent, random events has general features not related to the details of the single events. For example, in a standard, diffusive motion the spreading quantity does not vary proportionally to the time, but its variation may double only if time quadruples! If however the ...

Towards a new field of physics: Coherent Caloritronics

2016
Quantum electronics is now a mature field of physics in the sense that its basis is well understood, and in that it is a natural playground to develop quantum technology. Despite this tremendous success in both the understanding and harnessing of charge transport, very little is known regarding the quantum properties of heat transport. The COHERENT CALORITRONICS group at CnrNano activity aims at strengthening the understanding of phase-coherent heat transport in mesoscopic superconducting ...

Highlights 2016

2016
Highlights 2016 (see for details www.SPIN.CNR.it) Superconductivity: Physical Review - R. Citro, P. Marra, A. Braggio. Carbon - R. Fittipaldi, M. Salvato, C. Cirillo, A. Vecchione, C. Attanasio. Physical Review - A. Leo, P. Marra, G. Grimaldi, R. Citro, S. Kawale, E. Bellingeri, C. Ferdeghini, S. Pace, A. Nigro. Scientific Reports - S. Pagano, G. Carapella, P. Sabatino, C. Barone. Topical Review in Superconductor Science and Technology - I. Pallecchi, F. Caglieris, M. ...

Rotation of the polarization and easy shear cooperate to boost the piezoelectric effect

2016
Ferroelectrics are materials exhibiting spontaneous polarization and strain below the Curie temperature, so that the application of an electric field produces a deformation and the application of a stress produces an electric field, the so-called piezoelectric effect. For sensor and actuators it is desired that the magnitude of the piezoelectric effect is maximized, and this is often the case near transitions between ferroelectric phases whose spontaneous polarizations are in different ...

Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

2016
More than 30 years ago, Glauber theorized the existence of quantum systems to explain the link between the reversible microscopic and irreversible macroscopic scale. The formulation of such model is based on the so-called "rigged Hilbert space" and include irreversibility as a fundamental principle through the introduction of an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifier. The standard quantum mechanics does not forbid time-travel. However, according to the Glauber theory a quantum ...

Ultra-High-Density Magnetic Recording: Storage Materials and Media Designs

2016
Magnetic recording is presently the leading technology for mass data storage. Its dominant role has been reinforced by the success of cloud computing, which requires huge amounts of data to be stored and managed on a multitude of servers. Nonetheless, the hard-disk storage industry is presently at a crossroad as the current magnetic recording technologies are unable to achieve storage densities beyond 1Tbit/in2. Pushing the recording density to the terabit regime requires new storage materials, ...

Silent Flocks

2015
A paper on the collective behaviour of bird flocks, in which a spin wave model is brought to the continuous limit as in fluid elements of a large hydrodynamic system, has been published in Physical Review Letters and it has been the subject of a synopsis in the APS magazine Physics. Both spin and density waves can propagate throughout flocks, but in some cases their contributions are quickly damped. Andrea Cavagna's group at ISC has shown that only spin waves propagate in medium-to-small ...

Thermal diode

2015
Cnr-Nano researchers developed a device that allow heat to flow preferentially in one direction, providing the homologue of an electrical diode. In a paper published in Nature Nanotechnology, researchers show the performances achieved in a hybrid device combining normal metals tunnel-coupled to superconductors, providing the realization of a thermal diode for electronic heat current that could be successfully implemented in true low-temperature solid-state thermal circuits. The results are ...

TARGETING RNA DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE: A NEW CLASS OF POTENT COMPOUNDS AGAINST FLAVIVIRUSES. Dr. Eloise Mastrangelo

2015
The genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) consists of over seventy viruses, mostly transmitted by arthropods and pathogenic to humans. Among them, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Yellow Fever virus and the recent re-emerging Zika virus, occupy a special area within the RNA virus world. An effective and specific therapy against flaviviruses is currently not available and also the broad-spectrum antiviral ribavirin appears ineffective to treat flavivirus infections. ...

The classical and quantum dynamics of molecular spins grafted on graphene

2015
The effect of graphene phonons and electrons on the spin dynamics of molecules grafted on graphene was investigated in a paper published in Nature Materials (C.Cervetti, A.Rettori, M.G.Pini, A.Cornia, A.Repollés, F.Luis, M.Dressel, S.Rauschenbach, M.Burghard, and L.Bogani). Dirac electrons introduce dominant quantum-relaxation channels and allow reaching a quantum tunneling regime, that was predicted 20 years ago by the French physicist Jacques Villain. A novel theoretical background is ...

Gli straordinari poteri delle cozze

2015
Era già noto da tempo che la cozza fosse fonte preziosa di principi antiossidanti, proteine nobili, vitamine e sali minerali, potente antinfiammatorio naturale e cibo afrodisiaco, ed era già altrettanto noto che la sua 'bava' fosse una colla dotata di superpoteri. Nessuno però si era spinto fino ad oggi a studiare il comportamento delle sue proteine per misurare la portata di questa 'appiccicosità'. L'insolita ricerca, pubblicata su Nature Communication, è stata condotta dai ricercatori ...

Tech4Bio

2015
From 2013 ISC coordinates the interistitute working group Tech4Bio, which consists of CNR researchers with different expertise but a common aim of favoring the formation of a scientific network contacting many different and complementary experiences, knowledge and technology, to explore the possibilities of scientific and technological development in the field of Biophysics, Biosensing and Biotechnology. The group presently comprises researchers from ISC, ISM, IFN, IFT, IDASC (www.tech4bio.eu). ...

Un nuovo tipo di luce

2015
Esistono alcuni gamberetti che riescono a vedere la luce con una dimensione in più rispetto a noi per individuare meglio il quasi invisibile plancton. Infatti la luce, oltre al colore dato dalla propria energia, ha un'altra proprietà di cui normalmente non è facile rendersi conto: la polarizzazione, ossia la direzione e il modo in cui il campo elettromagnetico oscilla nel propagarsi alla velocità della luce. Uno studio pubblicato sulla rivista 'Light Science & Applications' propone e ...

Innovative techniques in spintronics and new possibilities for room temperature applications

2014
Spin control of single electrons is of great interest for future applications in electronics and spintronics. However, to observe these phenomena at room temperature it is necessary to confine the electrons to conductive islands with reduced size, almost atomic. Although this type of confinement is feasible today, the technological difficulty is to control independently the different conductive islands separated by a few nanometers. A goal almost prohibitive. Recently a group of researchers from ...

Demonstration of a phenomenon known as 'coherent perfect absorption' in a microcavity in the regime of strong light-matter interaction

2014
The perfect coherent absorption, observed for the first time 3 years ago in a silicon slab, has attracted a great interest in the scientific community because from a theoretical point of view it is the reverse of the laser: in fact it gives rise to a device that absorbs the light completely, contrary to the laser which generates it. In general the absorption of light by a material depends on its dielectric properties and increases in proportion to its thickness. However, when not one beam but ...

THz spectroscopy reaches sub-particle resolution

2014
Conventional techniques of Terahertz spectroscopy (which use the range of electromagnetic radiation between infrared and microwave) reach a spatial resolution that, depending on the radiation used, cannot go beyond an intrinsic limit, the so-called diffraction limit, which is between 3 and 3000 microns. This limitation thus only allows the investigation of ensembles, in which the relevant physical parameters are estimated as the mean value of the size, orientation, shape, and density of ...

Graphene at NANO

2013
The focus of the Istitute of Nanoscence is on graphene with the ambitious of developing research activities that have the potential to bring this material and related nanostructures from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionize multiple industries - from flexible, transparent electronics, to energy and high performance computing and spintronics. Our current efforts are on the growth of epitaxial graphene and its chemical functionalization for energy applications. Other ...

Paving the way to the early diagnosis of glioblastoma

2013
Nanobrain is part of the flagship project NanoMax and originates from the collaboration between four CNR Institutes: Nanoscienze (Nano), Neuroscienze (IN), Officina dei Materiali (IOM) and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO). This project promotes the collaboration between the neuroscience and the nanofabrication technologies present in CNR. At the basis of this project is the consideration that the brain is biochemically isolated from the body by the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB): because of this ...

Formation Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticle 1D Micro- Structures and their Hierarchic Assembly into 3D Superstructures

2009
Flower-like silver nanoparticle microstructures are prepared by the reaction of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid in an acidic aqueous solution of a poly-naphthalene system. The three-dimensional flower-like structure has a purely hierarchic arrangement, wherein each petal is composed of bundles of silver particle chains, each enclosed in a polymer sheath. The ordering arises from strong adsorption of silver ions onto the polymer and by the interplay of the redox properties of nitric and ascorbic ...

Proteine CLC - Canali ionici passivi e trasportatori attivi

2008
Il trasporto di ioni attraverso le membrane cellulari è uno dei processi biologici più delicati e viene affidato a specifiche proteine integrali di membrana. Per esempio, il segnale nervoso si trasmette attraverso un sistema di feedback positivo mediato da "canali ionici" dipendenti dal potenziale elettrico. Termodinamicamente i canali ionici sono dispositivi passivi che sfruttano gradienti ionici creati da trasportatori ionici attivi. Fino a qualche anno fa si pensava che queste due classi di ...

The Italian Neutron Experimental Station INES@ISIS

2008
INES is the Italian Neutron Experimental Station at ISIS, the world most powerful pulsed neutron source, at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (U.K.). The experimental station is equipped with a time-of-flight neutron diffractometer and is mainly used for the microscopic structural analysis of materials of archaelogical interest. Since first installation, on January 2006, this instrument has been made available to the Italian and international scientific communities. During 2006, 28 experiments have ...

graphene electronics

2008
Graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon, after its recent experimental demonstration has been attracting a lot of interest not only in the physics community but also in the electronic industry, due to its extraordinary physical properties. At IMM an intensive research activity is going along considering both the theoretical and the experimental approach. Theoretical approaches are related to the development of multiscale models and tools for transport properties. The challenge of the ...

Multiple wavelength digital holographic microscopy for the three dimensional imaging of biostructures

2008
The Institute of Cybernetics" E Caianiello" has developed a digital holographic microscope for quantitative imaging of biostructures. A digital holographic microscope relies on the classical principle of holography except that the hologram is not recorded by a traditional film, but by means of a CCD array sensor camera, typically a sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixel of 5-10 micron size. Each pixel records the intensity of the resulting interference pattern. The hologram is recorded and digitized ...

Tecniche innovative di sensing in fibra ottica per l'aerospazio

2007
Il monitoraggio strutturale, dati i suoi recenti sviluppi, costituisce un campo di ricerca che investe sempre più settori. In particolare trova grandi possibilità di applicazione in quello aerospaziale, dove è evidente la necessità di sviluppare tecniche di sensing strutturale tramite le quali ottenere un aumento dei livelli di sicurezza con bassi costi di realizzazione e manutenzione. L'attività di ricerca svolta dall'Unità di Napoli dell'IMM-CNR, relativa allo sviluppo di tecniche ...

Microsensori e microsistemi ottici per l'aerospazio, l'ambiente, le telecomunicazioni, la diagnostica medica avanzata, la sicurezza (microsensori fisici, chimici e biologici, DNA-chip, lab-on-chip, etc.)

2007
Scopo di tale attività è lo sviluppo di dispositivi fotonici micro- e nano-strutturati in silicio da integrare in microsistemi-elettro-meccanici (MEMS), per consentire a questi di comunicare con l'esterno mediante canali ottici. L'attività è di notevolissimo interesse non solo in campo strettamente telecomunicazionistico o nell'ambito delle interconnessioni ottiche su chip per il superamento dei limiti legati all'utilizzo delle interconnessioni metalliche, ma soprattutto in tutte quelle ...