Materials tailoring is dictated by the relevant development in structural ceramics of the last five years and the ever-increasing demand of high properties. This mean actions involving composition, structure and texture. In this respect, in 2002, ISTEC has carried out three distinct activities with the aim to develop innovative ceramic materials with specific and tailored properties. About composition, Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) have been developed, mainly based on borides and carbides of hafnium, zirconium and silicon. About structure, nanostructured ceramics, both monolithic and composites, have been produced and characterized. About texture, good results have been obtained on the ceramization of ligneous structures showing the possibility to exploit biomorphic structures for advanced appliances where specific porous structures cannot be obtained with the traditional techniques. About the applications, UHTC have a unique combination of favorable properties which make these materials useful ultra-high temperature thermal barriers in space vehicles. Nanostructured monophasic and composite ceramics shown interesting wear-resistant properties with lower fiction coefficient than the corresponding materials with micrometric-scale microstructure. About biomorphic ceramics, interesting applications are forecast in the field of filters for exhausted hot gases or liquids, catalyzer supports, and also in biotechnology where these materials can be applied as inserts which are inert to biological aggression by cells, microbes or enzymes.