Focus

Dispositivi SQUID per Microscopia Magnetica a Scansione: Imaging di Reti di Giunzioni Josephson

2007
L'Istituto di Cibernetica ha progettato e realizzato gradiometri SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) per microscopia magnetica a scansione. Tali dispositivi [1], basati sulla tecnologia del niobio, sono del tipo a gradiometro asimmetrico; hanno una micro bobina di pick-up integrata, con diametro interno di 5 micron, alla distanza di circa 50 mm dallo SQUID. Nel micro pick-up è anche possibile inviare una corrente in modo da poter applicare un campo magnetico al campione in ...

Tecniche di diagnostica ottica non distruttiva

2007
Nell'ambito del monitoraggio non invasivo, l'Unità di Napoli ha un'esperienza ormai consolidata nel settore della diagnostica ottica interferometrica. I metodi di caratterizzazione olografici, si candidano come ottimi strumenti di misura per differenti attività di monitoraggio. Tali tecniche non prevedono alcun contatto tra la strumentazione di test ed i campioni in esame e pertanto permettono di effettuare un'analisi strutturale non distruttiva dei sistemi monitorati. L'olografia consente di ...

CVD diamond electronic devices and detectors.

2007
This research group at ISC, Montelibretti (Rome) has been working since early 90s to the design and development of CVD diamond devices and dosimeters. In the frame of FP5 the group led the " Material Engineering of CVD diamond: defect tailoring for optimised tissue equivalent linear radiotherapy dosimetry and other passive electronic applications", Project. It was aimed at producing prototypes of dosimeters suitable to work under clinical conditions for radiotherapy, with a performance ...

Materiali con costante dielettrica colossale

2007
Recentemente sono stati scoperti materiali con permittività colossale (fino a 10^6) come la perovskite CuCa3Ti4O12. E' in corso un dibattito scientifico molto profondo sulle origini di tale permittività (intrinseca o estrinseca). Questi materiali possono trovare applicazione in antenne integrate ed in condensatori ad elevatissima densità capacitiva, elementi passivi integrati che oggi occupano circa il 90% dell'area dei chip di potenza in telefonini o dispositivi wireless. La conferma di tali ...

Porous silicon based photonic transducers: versatile platforms for optical biosensors and biochips

2007
There is no other inorganic material that brings together such much intriguing features like porous silicon (PSi) for people working in the optical sensing field. Porous silicon was unexpectedly discovered in the late fifties when chemists attempted to electropolish silicon wafers with an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid to get better electrical contacts in the first integrated electronic circuit fabrications.1 The acid dissolution left a sponge-like nanocrystalline silicon structure on ...

Sistema SQUID per microscopia magnetica a scansione: individuazione di difetti sub-superficiali in materiali di interesse aeronautico

2007
L'Istituto di Cibernetica "E. Caianiello" nell'ambito del centro di competenza della Regione Campania sulla valorizzazione e conservazione dei Beni Culturali e Ambientali (INNOVA), ha acquisito e sviluppato un sistema prototipale di microscopia magnetica a scansione, Esso impiega un singolo sensore SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) operante in azoto liquido, caratterizzato da una sensibilità di circa 20 pT/Hz1/2 e una risoluzione spaziale di circa 50 ?m. Il sistema opera in ...

Microscopia a scansione di sonda: oltre l'imaging

2007
La microscopia a scansione di sonda si è affermata come una delle tecniche più potenti per l'accesso diretto su scala nanometrica per la misura di proprietà chimico/fisiche e manipolazione diretta. L'attività dell'istituto si è affermata a livello internazionale per aver saputo implementare metodologie in grado di misurare proprietà elettroniche di materiali e dispositivi. Attualmente l'Istituto è un polo di riferimento internazionale per la misura di profili di portatori in nanostrutture ...

Superconducting nanowires single-photon detectors

2007
High-speed single-photon counting detectors have many applications, including optical communications, quantum information, spectroscopy of ultrafast quantum phenomena in biology and solid-state physics, semiconductor processing. Of particular interest would be a detector that exhibits both ultrafast count rates ≥ GHz and high single-photon detection efficiency at near-infrared wavelengths (1550 nm); however, this combination is not available with current technologies. InGaAs avalanche ...

A palm-sized gas-chromatographic system for sub-ppb VOC detection in air quality monitoring applications

2006
Increasing pollution due to vehicular traffic and industrial activities is a major problem nowadays, especially in larger cities or industrial areas. Capillary air quality monitoring is mandatory to ensure healthy living conditions, but available air quality monitoring systems are bulky and expensive. Simple low-cost systems based on solid state gas sensors were recently proposed. However, lack of selectivity of MOX gas sensors is one of the major issues in applications where single compounds ...

La clean room dell'Unità di Napoli

2006
La cleanroom presente presso l'Unità di Napoli dell'Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (IMM) nasce nel 2006 per consentire l'esecuzione di una serie di attività di ricerca di punta nei settori dell'optoelettronica, dei microsistemi, della sensoristica avanzata. L'allestimento di questo laboratorio è stato finanziato da un progetto MIUR di potenziamento delle strutture di ricerca per le aree di obiettivo 1 e gran parte delle apparecchiature ed impianti in esso collocate ed ...

Dispositivi di potenza in GaN

2006
Fra i semiconduttori ad ampia banda proibita il GaN si è imposto all'attenzione internazionale poiché avendo una banda diretta ha permesso la realizzazione di LED e LASER a stato solido nel blu ultravioletto ed a luce bianca. Tale interesse si è rivelato una driving force importante per il miglioramento della qualità elettronica del materiale fino a renderla accettabile anche per altre applicazioni quali la realizzazione di dispositivi di potenza (alte tensioni, alte correnti, alte frequenze ...

Progetto HIDEMAR - Dino Fiorani

2005
Per far fronte alla inarrestabile domanda di immagazzinamento di informazioni nei settori più svariati dell'economia e della società moderna la ricerca scientifica ha prodotto degli sforzi enormi grazie ai quali la densità degli hard disk dei computer è più che raddoppiata ogni anno negli ultimi anni. Purtroppo però la tecnologia esistente ha raggiunto limiti fisici che impediscono la possibilità di immagazzinare sempre più informazioni in spazi sempre più piccoli. Ricorrendo ad una ...

Development of the technological steps for the realization of a Si-based micro-fuel-cell.

2003
Conventional batteries are already unable to deliver power in more and more shrunk volumes maintaining the requirements of long duration and light weight. A possible solution to overcome these limits is the use of miniaturised fuel cell. The fuel cell offers a greater gravimetric energy density compared to conventional batteries. They are typically realised using an electrolyte material, usually a polymer membrane (proton exchange type), that is encapsulated between electrodes. Fuel cell ...

Time-resolved Energy Dispersive X-ray Reflectometry measurements on Ruthenium Phtalocyanine gas sensing films upon working

2003
X-ray Reflectivity (XR) measurements allow an atomic scale determination of the morphological characteristics of thin films, such as their thickness and surface roughness. In the present work, the Energy Dispersive (ED) variant of the conventional XR technique is used in-situ to obtain, for the first time, the (minimal) morphological changes of gas sensing thin films of Ruthenium Phtalocyanine (RuPc)2 upon working. The real-time collection of Reflectivity spectra during the exposure of the films ...

Diamond detector has three-electrode structure, Laser Focus World, July, 2003

2003
Not only does diamond sparkle--it withstands ionizing radiation, too. Researchers at the University of Rome Tre and CNR, Institute of Inorganic Methodology and Plasmas (both of Rome, Italy) are using the material as a basis for photodetectors that may be well-suited for astronomical use in space, where ions degrade other materials. The detector operates by collecting both photogenerated carriers in the bulk material and photoelectrons emitted from the surface. A 50-µm-thick diamond film is ...

Modulation of chloride ion flow: blockers of CLC channels as probes of structure and models for drug design.

2003
Ion channels are important proteins for many physiological processes. Examples range from cellular excitability to urine production. In fact, many drugs have ion channels as their target, for example many neuropharmaceuticals. Furthermore, "channelopathies" - diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for ion channels, represent a vast class of pathologies. A family of chloride ion channels, the so-called CLC chloride channel family, comprises nine members in humans and mutations in at least ...

Anisotropy of isolated atoms and nanoclusters of Co

2003
The magnetic anisotropy determines the orientation and the stability of the magnetization which is a crucial parameter for a large part of the technological applications. The possibility of modify the magnetic anisotropy of small clusters by changing the shape, composition and dimensions makes such systems of evident applicative interest. A study of the anisotropy and magnetic momenta of metallic clusters constituted by 1÷100 atoms of Co and deposited onto a crystalline substrate of Pt(111) ...

Organic light emitting diodes (OLED): new limits to efficiency

2003
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are considered as the next generation of light sources for illumination. They are lighter, thinner, more efficient and easier for large area applications than usual LEDs. In addition, OLEDS offer wide tunability over a broad spectral coverage, by varying the chemical structure of the emissive species or by modifying the device structures. This work identifies for the first time the fundamental process occurring in polymeric light emitting devices by ...

Silicon/germanium single electron transistor

2003
In this focus we will report on the first single electron transistors (SET) fabricated on silicon/germanium heterostructures whose critical dimensions are in the nanometer scale. The evolution of fabrication techniques in large scale integrated circuit (LSI) have lead to reduction of the size of the electronic devices into the submicron scale. In parallel a large increase in the circuit operating speed and device density is observed. CMOS technology is presently used in microelectronics and ...

Advanced Environment to develop cooperating information systems

2003
For the modern information systems there an increased interest to explicitly represent the underlying conceptual layer. In this contest a reach bag of software tools have been developed to aggregate and manage the information in conceptual packaging structures (Octapy Framework), structure to render in a graphic mode. The graphic visualization is chosen in a such a way that it is possible to associate the action corresponding to the user interaction (Visual Interaction Module -IGM). The ...

SQUID multichannel system for magnetoencefalography

2003
The SQUID (acronym of Superconducting Quantum Inteference Device) is one of the most important devices in the framework of the "small scale" applications of Superconductivity. It is based on the magnetic flux quantisation in a superconducting ring and on the Josephson Effect. In magnetometer configuration, a SQUID is the most sensitive detector of magnetic field; it is able to measure a magnetic field of the order of some billions times smaller than the earth magnetic field. SQUID magnetometers ...

Fighting bacterial infections: disarming rather than killing.

2003
A warning was issued a few years ago by the World Health Organization about the proliferation of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains and has recently been reiterated by various scientific societies and the European Union. The phenomenon is alarming both because of its frequency and of the fast pace at which it is spreading. The cost of treating these infections is now about twice that of treating diseases caused by antibiotic-sensitive strains. In Great Britain, the health bill for ...

Optical Mammography

2002
Optical diagnosis of breast tumour has been of growing interest in the last few years due to its non invasive character and to the chance of obtaining information complementary to x-ray mammograms. In fact, the principal tissue components, as oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin, lipid and water, exhibit different light absorption properties in the spectral range from 600 nm to 1000 nm. Thus in principle, it is possible to distinguish different breast structures on the basis of their light ...

Technology for Electronic Noses developed by IMM

2002
Electronic Noses are devices able to generate digital maps of complex odors. Their working principles are aimed at reproducing the human olfactive system. The sensitivity of these artificial sensors, in fact, is comparable to that of human olfactive receptors; their data processing is similar to the sensing events occurring inside the olfactive bulbs and the resulting odor classification is carried out by Neural Networks or Statistic Multi-Component Analysis which reproduce both the learning and ...

Devices and sensors for high temperature applications

2002
High temperature and high power applications of microsystems require sensors or devices that cannot be built in Si due to the limitation of some of its physical properties. Among wide bandgap semiconductors, silicon carbide (SiC) is to date the only one commercially available in relatively large diameter wafers with the electronic purity and quality. Furthermore, it has a high thermal conductivity, three times higher than Si and comparable to Cu, 10-fold breakdown field strength which allows ...

MEMORIE MOS A FLOATING GATE: VERSO IL SINGOLO ELETTRONE

2002
Le dimensioni geometriche raggiunte dai transistor MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) sono ormai tali da rendere alla portata della capacità tecnologica di un moderno impianto di produzione di circuiti integrati ad altissima densità (ULSI) la realizzazione di dispositivi elettronici la cui operazione è dominata da fenomeni quantistici e da effetti legati all'energia coulombiana associata al trasferimento di singoli elettroni. Tali effetti, da tempo studiati nell'ambito ...

Evidence of ferromagnetic order in chains of atoms, Nature 416, 301 (2002)

2002
The fabrication of new nanostructured materials is a rapidly growing field with strong possibilities of applications. Particular attention is actually devoted to overcome the superparamagnetic limit of nanoparticles by means of the controlled manipulation of the shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies and to the development of composite elements for magnetic memories and sensors. The activity of the institute in that field is specifically dedicated to the synthesis and to investigate the ...

Optical fibre sensor for NO2 based on metal-phthalocyanines of environmental interest.Patent: International Application N° PCT/ITO1/00005

2002
Optical fibre sensor for NO2 based on metal-phthalocyanines of This project has been developed in collaboration with the IFAC-CNR and with the PRODOTEC srl in the PF MSTA II Introduction Material chemistry and particularly the synthesis and characterisation of new materials is allowing the design and the development of many new chemical sensors which are opening highly exciting perspectives in the area of chemical sensing. The optical fibre sensor for NO2 consists on the utilisation of an ...

Multiple Sclerosis: Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis in genetically homogeneous populations.

2002
There is a prevailing hypothesis that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a polygenic immune-mediated disease. So far only one genetic factor has been identified located in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II, specifically DR15, DQ6. However, there is no convincing evidence of a common susceptibility locus. We have identified a pedigree of Pennsylvania Dutch extraction, in which MS segregates with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. We have collected blood samples from 18 family members, seven ...

Representation of 3D digital objects with reduced dimensionality

2002
An important goal has been reached regarding shape representation with reduced dimensionality for three-dimensional objects (refer to "Curve skeletonization of surface-like objects in 3D images guided by voxel classification", S. Svensson, I. Nyström, G. Sanniti di Baja, Pattern Recognition Letters, 23/12 1419-1426, 2002). It is well-known that skeletonization is a process to extract from a two-dimensional object a set of arcs and curves, called skeleton, that is a sketched and faithful ...