Focus

IL LIDAR NELLO STUDIO DELL'EVOLUZIONE MORFOLOGICA DI FRANE E CORSI D'ACQUA

2007
La disponibilità di strumentazioni in grado di fornire (DTM) Modelli Digitali del Terreno di elevata precisione permette un monitoraggio areale dell'evoluzione morfologica di ampie porzioni di territorio. In tale ambito, il CNR IRPI di Torino (che coordina la Commessa: TA.P05.010 / Sviluppo e applicazione di tecnologie innovative di caratterizzazione e monitoraggio per la previsione, mitigazione e gestione dei fenomeni di instabilità geo-idrologica o relativi a grandi opere e reti ...

Air quality simulations: BOLCHEM. by F. Tampieri

2007
The atmospheric pollution forecast is a challenging target, which is not far to be reached by the scientific tools developed in the last years. The research objective is to better understand the processes that affect the air quality and their impact on meteorology and climate; the practical objective is to produce tools for the governance and support to decisions. The growing public interest solicited new European economic resources towards such end. In particular EU finances the Integrated ...

With the ALP-IMP project the climate of the last two centuries of a vast European area centering on the Alps has been reconstructed.

2007
A database on climate change over the last two centuries has been realized thanks to the European project ALP-IMP (Multi-centennial climate variability in the Alps based on Instrumental data, Model simulations and Proxy data), where the group of Historical Climatology of the Institute of Atmospheric and Climatic Sciences (ISAC) of the National Research Council, Bologna, headed by Teresa Nanni, participated for Italy. Research was carried out in collaboration with Maurizio Maugeri of the ...

EU LIFE PERBIOF PROJECT (A new technology for treating municipal and/or industrial wastewater with low environmental impact)

2007
Conventional suspended biomass reactors (e.g. activated sludge systems), widely used for treating municipal and/or industrial wastewater, have the disadvantage of large area requirement and high surplus biomass production. This explains the great effort being made worldwide to find a replacement for conventional technologies, with innovative ones aimed at lower footprint, better operational flexibility and lower sludge production. In such a contest, the Water Research Institute (IRSA) of the ...

Extraordinary deep origin (≥ 350 km) and hot melting (≥ 1800 °C) of an Archaean orogenic peridotite massif in Norway

2006
Decompression microstructures preserved in the mineral garnet from a Norwegian orogenic peridotite massif exposed on Otrøy Island revealed that this mantle fragment was exhumed from depths ≥ 350 km close to that of the Mantle Transition Zone (410 km). This peridotite massif represents one of the deepest kilometre-size mantle rock units discovered at the Earth's surface. The recognition of this extraordinary depth of origin enables the detailed study of the deep Earth now at the surface, ...

Network per lo studio e la gestione delle fioriture di Ostreopsis spp. e di altre microalghe bentoniche potenzialmente tossiche lungo le coste italiane

2006
La network o rete BENTOX-NET, a cui afferiscono ricercatori con consolidata esperienza nell'affrontare le tematiche dei bloom microalgali, comprende le expertise richieste per affrontare le ricerche sugli HAB (Harmful Algal Blooms). La rete (network), che si considera attiva dal momento della formazione sulla base delle risorse disponibili, si propone di: - stabilire una comunicazione ottimale fra gruppi di ricerca già impegnati sul territorio italiano in studi sul problema delle fioriture ...

Development of codominant and functional molecular markers in Juglans spp.

2006
The goal is to identify functional molecular markers for the early selection of plants tolerant to biotic stress. The researches are carried out on Juglans spp. and foresee the genetic characterization of a "mixed" population of plants J.regia, J.nigrae the identification of any interspecific hybrids using dominant molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and nuclear microsatellitism (SSR) codominati.Also we will conduct the analysis of half-sib families from free pollination of J. nigra parent plants, ...

Il Progetto EU AQUASTRESS (Mitigation of Water Stress through new Approaches to Integrating Management, Technical, Economic and Institutional Instruments)

2006
AquaStress è un Progetto Integrato di ricerca, avviato nel Febbraio 2005 nell'ambito del VI Programma Quadro dell'Unione Europea e della durata di quattro anni, cui partecipano 35 Istituzioni (Enti di ricerca, Università, Organizzazioni non-governative) appartenenti a 17 nazioni europee e del bacino mediterraneo, Nord Africa incluso. Il progetto è coordinato dall'Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque del CNR. Il consorzio di partner è caratterizzato da un'elevata interdisciplinarità, con esperti ...

Biotecnologie applicate al risanamento di aree marine contaminate da petrolio e implementazione di tecnologie innovative

2005
I disastri dovuti ad episodi di oil spill in mare sono eventi accidentali che hanno un enorme impatto sugli ecosistemi marini. Tale scenario richiede interventi mirati da un lato al monitoraggio delle aree marine a rischio, che consenta la predizione di disastri ambientali, dall'altro alla implementazione di nuove tecnologie innovative finalizzate recupero delle aree contaminate. Presso la sezione di Messina , è stata incrementata l'attività di ricerca sui BIC (batteri idrocarburoclastici) ...

Individuazione e Monitoraggio di Specie Alloctone nei Mari di Taranto

2005
A conclusione del Progetto "Introduzione e Monitoraggio di Specie Alloctone nei mari di Taranto" (IMSAT), MIUR, D.M. 1015 4/10/2001, è stato preparato un'opuscolo, a carattere divulgativo, avente lo scopo di sensibilizzare tutti coloro che operano in contatto col mare, le autorità preposte alla tutela dell'ambiente e della salute umana e l'opinione pubblica, in generale. L'opuscolo si prefiggeva anche di individuare delle linee guida da suggerire per evitare l'introduzione di specie ...

Oil eating marine bacteria, new perspectives for bioremediation

2004
However, there are many sources of oil pollution in the ocean other than tanker and oil rig accidents. Human activity on the land and natural seeps as well as municipal and industrial waste discharge. Progress in bioremediation have allowed the discovery of a fascinating new group of marine bacteria, namely the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), that play a critical role in the natural cleansing of marine systems and obviously have a biotechnological potential. The HCB are marine obligate ...

Fauna e flora dei mangrovieti: biologia riproduttiva e meccanismi di dispersione.

2004
1 - Studio della struttura genetica dell'isopode marino Sphaeroma terebrans, perforatore del legno di mangrovia e confronto con quella di altre specie di Crostacei con diverse strategie riproduttive. 2 - Analisi dei ritmi riproduttivi e delle strategie di dispersione in Sphaeroma terebrans. L'analisi svolta fino a questo momento ha permesso di ottenere alti livelli di strutturazione genetica nell'isopode S. terebrans e valori significativi di differenziazione genetica tra le popolazioni, anche a ...

XMM-NEWTON AND ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

2003
Neutron stars do not shine like "normal" stars do: isolated neutron stars are visible only because 1) they are born very hot in the SN event which generates them or 2) they slowly lose their rotational energy through radiation processes connected with the superstrong magnetic field co-rotating with the star. Both such thermal and non-thermal processes contribute to neutron star luminosities in X-rays, especially in the .1-to-10 kev energy region. It is precisely for this two-decade range that ...

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2003
La comprensione dei processi geodinamici e l'analisi dei fattori che ne influenzano l'evoluzione rappresenta un traguardo fondamentale nell'ambito delle Scienze della Terra. Tra i vari processi, l'estensione continentale e la formazione delle rift valleys riveste un ruolo di notevole importanza in quanto precede la formazione dei bacini oceanici. L'importanza delle aree di estensione crostale è inoltre legata alla presenza di giacimenti minerari e idrocarburi ed all'elevato impatto sociale ...

High Enegy diffuse X-Ray emission from the Galactic Bulge

2003
Our Galaxy is a bright source of gamma-rays that has been observed over many decades of energy. The interstellar medium is probably responsible for most of the Galactic emission below 10 keV, and above 300 keV. However, in the soft gamma-ray domain (>20 keV)the nature of the Galactic emission was still uncertain and a matter of debate. The lack of sensitive, high resolution observations did not allow for the relative contribution of compact sources and the interstellar medium to be ...

Stress evaluation in ornamental stone quarries

2003
Marble exploitation in the Apuane Alps gives rise to rock wall faces and underground voids of uncommon size and shape. The trend towards gigantism in quarry operations (the height of the faces increases up to 150m, the length of underground voids to 80-120m, their height to 30-50m and their span to 20-40m) is sustained by the higher outputs required and favored by the growing mechanization of the stopes. It is known however that ornamental stones exploitation, both surface and underground, is ...

The large landslides occurred in December 2002 on the Sciara del Fuoco (Stromboli)

2003
On December 30th 2002 the inhabited coastal areas of Stromboli Island were hit by a series of tsunami waves up to 10 metre high. Tsunami waves were the effect of at least two destructive landslides which involved the submarine and subaerial Sciara del Fuoco slope, respectively. Sciara del Fuoco is the NW flank of the Stromboli volcano, where the products of the volcanic activity accumulate. At present the NW flank looks like a regular slope above and below the sea level. Actually it is the ...

Impact of transgenic maize crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins on phytophagous and beneficial insects

2003
Every year million hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops, including varieties of soya, maize, tomatoes, potatoes, cotton, tobacco and oilseed rape, are planted for commercial purposes worldwide. It is important that any potential negative side effects of GM plants are studied in detail and research in this area has clearly expanded and advanced during recent years. The research group of the Unit of Applied Ecology and Biological Control of ISE-CNR studied the effect of transgenic maize ...

Twenty million years under the sea: a slice of history of ocean floor formation

2003
The oceanic lithosphere covers 2/3 of our Planet: understanding how it forms and evolves is a major challenge in the Earth sciences. New crust is continuously being created by partial melting of the upwelling mantle; and the melt rises towards the ocean floor, cools, solidifies and is then 'rafted' away to either side of the ridge by seafloor spreading. Mid-ocean ridge (MOR) topography, structure and composition indicate that near zero age processes of lithosphere formation vary along ridge ...

Advanced treatments for drinking water

2003
In Italy most of the drinking water comes from groundwater that, according to update surveys, are often polluted by organic chemicals such as chlorinated solvents and pesticides. These pollutants reach groundwater because of rainfalls, over irrigation and/or unauthorized disposals. The removal of such toxic and persistent pollutants at potabilization plants is achieved by specific treatments such as adsorption onto activated carbon or membrane filtration. However, these treatments are ...

Uses of dechlorinating bacteria for bioremediation of ground water contaminated by organohalogenated compounds

2003
Object of the study The contamination of aquifers by chlorinated solvents, caused by their widespread use in industrial processes and their improper handling and disposal, is today a major problem. The pollution of water resources by organo-halogenated compounds, started during 50s and continued for several decades, and is common to all the industrialised countries, including Italy. For the Italian legislation the decontamination of the polluted site by the responsible of the pollution or, if ...

The beginning of SRT construction

2003
Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is the main project of the Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA), aimed to build one of the world largest single dish radio telescopes. The instrument, a 64m dish of modern design, is intended to operate with multi focal postions in order to cover almost the full frequency spectrum between 300 MHz and 100 GHz. The site is about 30 km from Cagliari, main city in Sardinia Island. SRT will joint the Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) IRA radio telescopes to complete ...

Wind and wave atlas for the Mediterranean Sea

2003
Traditionally the marine atlases were based on the visual reports taken from ships. On top of the unavoidable errors, these data carry with them a basic flaw, because of the care with which the captains try to avoid as far as possible the stormy areas. Besides these data are concentrated only on the main shipping lanes. More recently, during the last 10-20 years, three new sources of data have become available: buoys, satellites and numerical models. However, notwithstanding the enormous ...

The flux of cosmic material as revealed by the analysis if an ice core from Greenland

2003
Polar ice caps conserve within them exceptional archives that can be worked upon to reveal important climatic and environmental information. The layers of snow that accumulate year after year contain diverse substances that are transported by the wind in the form of fine particles to remote areas. These are then incorporated into the snow mantle during precipitation and via post-depositional processes overtime. The dust encapsulated in the snow can be of anthropogenic origin, from manmade ...

Identifying Ecoregions for Rodent Conservation

2003
In the framework of the research group on biodiversity conservation of the CNR-ISE priority ecoregions for rodent conservation have been identified. Current emphasis on biodiversity mapping and identification of conservation priorities which are not species-specific, highlight the importance of rodents as a biodiversity indicator group. In fact Rodents occur naturally on all continent (with the exception of Antarctica) and in almost all habitat, with more than 2000 recognised species ...

Mercury Pollution

2003
Recent news of mercury contamination in the Priolo-Agusta-Melilli industrial zone (Sicily) brought to public attention the seriousness of mercury pollution on human health and ecosystems. Mercury pollution is a long standing environmental problem, going back to the 19th century, starting with mercury used in gold extraction in North America; this practice is still widely used in Laos, Vietnam, Tanzania and Venezuela today. Mercury is much used in the manufacturing industry (eg., chlor-alkali ...

Trend in daily precipitation intensity and in the frequency of extreme precipitation events in Italy in the last 120 years. By Brunetti M., Maugeri M., Nanni T.

2003
In the recent years a tremendous increase in economic, environmental and human losses caused by weather hazards, especially floods and droughts, has raised the alarm over the possibility that the recent increases in extraordinary atmospheric events were are due to a changing climate. The analyses till now performed on daily series show a positive trend in the mean amount per wet day (i.e. precipitation intensity) for some areas and a tendency toward higher frequencies of heavy and extreme ...

CARAMEL are our monuments getting blacker? by Cristina Sabbioni

2003
It is known that changes are taking place in the composition of the atmosphere and in the resulting impact of multipollutants on the environment and land. Cultural heritage is particularly vulnerable to such changes. The results of the EC-financed CARAMEL project, wound up in 2003, showed that carbonaceous particulate has now become the main damage factor on the architectural and archaeological heritage. Measurements performed in a number of European cities (Milan, Rome, Paris, London and ...

BVOC (Biogenic volatile organic compound) emission responses to climate change

2003
All plants emit a wide range of volatile compounds such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds, the so-called biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). BVOC emissions have received increased scientific attention in the last two decades because BVOCs are highly reactive and, thus, may profoundly influence the chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere. The global carbon emitted as BVOCs is about 1.1 Pg per year, and is believed to be of the same ...

The geophysical exploration in the metropolitan areas: the Bosco in Città (Milan) experiment.

2003
The parks of the metropolitan areas constitute a "window" through which it is possible to explore the subsoil. An intersesting characteristic of the metropolitan parks is that they have experienced a generally low anthropic interaction in the historical times. Therefore the subsoil below their surface preserves the geological and environmental features which are the consequence of the processes occurred in that areas along the time. The geologic-physical characterization of the subsoil of the ...