Focus

An innovative technique for the olive oil sector

2007
An innovative technique for the olive oil sector has been introduced (nephelometry) which allows with simple optical measurements of the spectrum to certify the area of origin of a oil (PDO).

Machine strength grading of structural Italian timber

2006
Imont project (2004-2006): research for a machine stress grading of sawn timber for structural use obtained from lumber of various species (fir, spruce, larch, Douglas fir, black pine and chestnut) coming from Trentino Alto-Adige, Toscana and Calabria. This study allowed the adjustment of an efficient method of machine grading, the increment of visual grading efficiency, the publication of resistant profiles for the Italian structural lumber by wood species, geographic origin and category of ...

The experimental watershed Bonis

2003
The experimental watershed "Bonis" is located in the mountain area of Sila Greca (39°25'15''N, 16°12'38''W), Calabria, Italy, at an elevation ranging between 975 and 1300 m a.s.l.. Almost 93% of the total area (139 hectares) is covered by forest stands, dominated by about 50-years-old Calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret) forests, whose origin is artificial and, secondarily, natural. Also small stands of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and riparian forests of common alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) ...

The Sky Arrow ERAs: ISAFoM small research aircrafts

2003
The direct measurement of wind and turbulence from aerial platforms has been made since several decades, but only recently it has been possible to use small aircrafts, with consequent important perspectives for the atmospheric and biospheric research. In such context, ISAFoM bought and instrumented two SKY Arrow 650 TCNS ERA - constituting one of ` the Large Scale Infratructures' of CNR - equipped with BAT probes (Best Atmospheric Turbulence), developed by NOAA-ATDD (USA) and ARA (Australia), ...

Wood compatible adhesives for structural use

2003
The Italian building culture is based on bricks and stones for the walls, but until the first half of the 20th century almost all the floorings and the roof structures were made of timber, often richly decorated with paints or bas-reliefs. In general, the conservation authorities recommend that these structures should be maintained as integrally as possible, even when structural upgrading is needed, and in effect the interventions with glued-in rods or other analogous techniques is an ...

Mutlispectral fluorescence microimaging as a tool to analyse plant-environment interactions

2003
It has been largely shown that hydroxycinnamates and flavonoids, which are relevant classes of the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, serve a crucial role in the response mechanisms to several stressful agents, particularly excess light stress. Fluorescence signatures of plant tissue, namely the shape and the peak of maximum emission in the 400-600 nm waveband, depend on the relative concentration of various phenylpropanoids. As a consequence, the spectrofluorometric analysis may estimate the ...

Clea Project

2003
Implementation of a Prototype of wooden house for emergency housing to replace the currently used containers in case of earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters. The prototype can be mounted easily by 4 volunteers of Civil Defense in not exceeding 36 hours. The house has an area of 40 square meters. Based on this experience and in collaboration with Techset Society, 50 prefabricated houses with wooden structure was built (2003) in Bonefro (CB) in order to protect people affected by ...

THE HIGHEST GENETIC FOREST DIVERSITY IS FOUND IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN FORESTS

2003
Cyclic environmental changes have occurred during the last two million years. Living organisms react to changing phases through adaptation strategies, otherwise they get extinct. Forest trees are among the most ancient living organisms and in many cases they symbolise the last representatives of taxonomic units that underwent severe selection and/or extinction. The present distribution of trees in the forest landscape is the result of population dynamics experienced during the last millennia. In ...

SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF SEASONAL CLIMATIC FORECASTING SYSTEMS

2003
The climate prediction at the seasonal time scale (1-6 months) represents a challenge of the climatic research, with important scientific impacts regarding the identification of the effective long range climate predictors and the definition of the climate predictability. The research contributes to fill the gap between the instantaneous weather predictions and the climatic predictions. The seasonal forecasts of the climatic anomalies still suffer from relatively large errors and miss an ...

New non-Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy

2003
New non-Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy The know how on amphiphilic aggregates such as micelles or liposomes allowed us to set up a program, in collaboration with other European groups, on the preparation of new lipidic vectors for complexing DNA for Gene Therapy. The program includes: a) the preparation of new cationic amphiphilic molecules to be used as components of liposomes formed by natural lipids; b) the morphological, physico chemical and biological characterization of the obtained ...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi: Snapshots 2004

2003
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) are indeed mysterious and still surprising organisms. Plenty of papers have recently provided new insights on these organisms. The classification of AM fungi has been reviewed even if it's still under debate. The phosphate transporters in AM fungi and their impact on the phosphate transfer in plant is giving new exciting glances to a crucial step of plant physiology. Other fundamental aspects, such as lipids and carbohydrates metabolism and C translocation, have ...

A new functional food of plant origin: probiotic olives

2003
The understanding that probiotic foods can have beneficial effects on health has recently led to an increase in consumer demand for such products, and to an increase in their commercial value. Daily intake of probiotic micro-organisms, such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, contributes to maintaining and improving the balance of intestinal microbe populations, and their presence in high numbers poses a severe obstacle to gastro-intestinal disturbances and improves well-being of the organism by ...

Formulation of the Dairy Replacement Problem by using a Markovian Decision Process Approach and Linear Programming.

2003
The "replacement problem" has been frequently studied in literature utilising different methodologies. The method traditionally used to solve this problem is to formulate it as a decisional Markovian Process and to optimise it using Dynamic Programming (DP). There are, however, problems associated with the use of DP. The decision to cull is based solely upon the expected performance of the animal in question and that of it's replacement. Therefore, information concerning the cows performance in ...

The cytogenetic map in the genetic improvement of domestic river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n=50)

2003
Since the construction and publication of river buffalo standard karyotype with six different chromosome banding techniques, the laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics and Gene Mapping of the ISPAAM has been focalised part of its scientific activity in the genetic improvement of river buffalo, a species of great economic importance in the world, with about 130,000 million of heads, and in Italy, with about 220,000, mostly in Campania region (Southern Italy). Our studies have been addressed to both ...

Viroids: molecular fossils with modern features

2003
At beginning of '70 T.O. Diener discovered that the causal agent of potato spindle tuber disease is an infectious agent with very surprising features. It is a tiny RNA (246-401 nucleotides, nt) with a size much smaller than the genome of the smallest known virus. In the following years, scientists isolated other RNAs with similar properties from several plants, and the term "viroid" was generally accepted to refer to these biological entities which, from a structural point of view, are the ...

Cryopreservation and cryotherapy in Vitis vinifera L.

2003
Grapevine is an economically important fruit crop; in fact the growing areas account over 10 million hectares in the world. It is reported that the number of cultivars ranges between 5000 and 8000, many of them are endangered. To avoid genetic erosion it's necessary the rescue and preservation of the grapevine germplasm both in situ and ex situ, e.g. in collection fields or in vitro. Growth reduction of in vitro cultures is obtained by decreasing O2 rate or temperature and light quantity. ...

Leaf morphology and whole plant architecture

2003
The final morphology of a plant is determined by the activity of two poles of growth that form early during embryogenesis, the root meristem (RAM) and the shoot meristem (SAM). The determination of all the aerial organs, and ultimately of the whole plant architecture, depends on the SAM. The shoot apical meristem is a small group of cells at the shoot apex characterized by a central zone with pluripotent slow dividing cells that is important for meristem maintenance (stem cells), and a ...

Biotechnology for a sustainable agriculture

2003
Plants, as sessile organisms, have evolved complex strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions. However, crop species have been selected for centuries by humans for traits such as yield and organoleptic features. This selection has been carried out to detriment of other traits, such as the ability to grow under limiting conditions or to resist to pathogen attack. This phenomenon causes severe damages in agriculture, both as yield loss and as deterioration of food-stuffs and harvest ...

Fungi as potential agents of bioremediation of asbestos-contaminated soil

2002
Industrialized nations' passing flirtation with asbestos has left a nasty legacy. Exposure to airborne asbestos fibrils causes in fact asbestosis and malignancies such as bronchogenic carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma. Although extraction and use of asbestos have been banned in many countries, substantial amounts of fibres have remained on sites previously occupied by dismissed asbestos industries. Cleaning up contaminated soil around defunct asbestos mines and factories is a lot harder than ...

Functional proteins from human colostrum and milk

2002
Food quality is not only a function of nutritional values but also of the presence of bioactive compounds, which exert a positive effect on human health. In the case of milk, the known bioactive proteins and peptides are mainly derived from the casein fraction, and only a very few from the soluble protein (whey) fraction. The proteins associated with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGMP), representing 2-8% of the total protein milk content, derive from the apical membrane of secreting epithelial ...

SURROGATE MOTHER FOR ENDAGERED Cupressus dupreziana

2002
In the cypress improvement programme for resistance against canker disease, caused by Seiridium cardinale, controlled crosses among cypress species were done by the IPP. The hybrids Cupressus sempervirens (as female) x C. dupreziana (as male) aroused great interest, becuase some morphological traits of hybrids were always identical to those of the paternal tree, C. dupreziana. A team, constituted by Italian and French biologists, geneticists and sylviculturists, examined six 15-year-old families ...

Proteomic Analysis of bovine tissues and biological fluids

2002
To provide a complete molecular description of the fundamental mechanisms necessary for cell life, a series of studies on different organisms are now undergoing to characterize the whole pattern of proteins expression. Different Proteome projects have been activated in the world and their interest grows together with the increased availability of new genetic data. The scientific community realized that, once the entire genome of an organism have been sequenced, to understand the molecular ...

Proteomic Analysis of bovine tissues and biological fluids

2002
Nonostante la limitatezza dei dati disponibili sul genoma bovino, rispetto a quelli relativi a uomo e topo, sono state identificate le proteine più abbondanti in ciascun tessuto. In particolare, è stato ottenuto esito positivo per diverse centinaia di specie proteiche che sono state così associate ai rispettivi geni. I dati ottenuti potranno in futuro risultare basilari per la corretta comprensione dei complessi processi fisiologici e/o metabolici che regolano l'adattamento di quest'animale ...

Good safe quality for foodstuff using ionising irradiation

2002
Foodstuffs treatment by ionisation is a safe tool to produce both a shelf-life extension and/or a food-borne disease control through the pathogenic population reduction/elimination. The main goal is therefore to guarantee the best safe quality of the product to be marketed by means of a restriction of the spreading risk ("cross-contamination") for several diseases having an alimentary origin. About 50 countries provide clearances for the treatment of more than 50 different types of foodstuffs ...

A radiochemical methodology for the study of bronze corrosion

2002
After a previous interest in metals for industrial applications (steels for industrial plants), our research is now mainly related to the field of Cultural Heritage. The activity refers to degradation studies of bronzes for outdoor sculptures and also includes stones and related protective materials. The activities are financially supported by funds, obtained within European and National research programmes. In particular, we work within a European project (EUREKA), named "Bronzart", concerning ...

BIOMETEOROLOGY

2002
Le attività svolte dall' Istituto possono essere distinte secondo alcune linee guida: Meteorologia e Climatologia L' Istituto si occupa dello sviluppo e trasferimento delle conoscenze e delle nuove tecnologie concernenti meteorologia e climatologia al settore agricolo-forestale, costiero, urbano e relativo alla salute umana. In quest' ambito viene studiato il Global Change ed il suo impatto sugli ecosistemi e la loro risposta, oltre che le interazioni tra fattori meteorologici, colture e ...

Semen bank of italian local pig breeds

2002
The modern pig industry relies on a relatively limited number of breeds, common to all countries, which are used in the framework of highly integrated breeding schemes. The evolution of improved pig populations over the last decades has brought some performances close to their biological or economic optimum, thus reducing their future importance in the breeding objectives. Consequently, traits as meat and fat quality, reproductive fitness, mothering abilities, adaptation to extensive ...

Cynara cardunculus L., its innovative value and multiple utilization

2002
The species Cynara cardunculus L. includes the two botanic varieties, the altilis DC (domestic cardoon) and the sylvestris (wild cardoon) and the sub species scolymus Hegi (globe artichoke). The particular interest for the productive potential of this species is related to the traditional use of the thickened receptacle for human food, to the possible alternative utilisation of the biomass and also the possibility to obtain, in Mediterranean environment, good yields even under low water ...

Whiteflies and viruses: fatal attraction!

2002
The whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), small insects that feed in the phloem of a wide range of plants, are rapidly expanding from their original tropical and subtropical zones, colonizing temperate agricultural areas, including large parts of Italy. The intensifying losses caused by whiteflies are certainly due to population increase, particularly of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Fig.1) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), but whitefly-transmitted diseases are making these losses quite ...

Twins but not identical: plant and animal immunity

2002
Although lacking immunoglobulins, circulating cells and phagocytic processes, plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their estimated 450 million years of evolution, they have developed various defence strategies against pathogenic microrganisms. Thus plants as well as animals are equipped with molecules, cells, tissues and organs capable of recognizing and distinguishing between self and non-self and so can mediate the relationship between the individual and the ...