Focus

Identificate due regioni genomiche e stili di vita associati alla longevità

2017
La longevità è di interesse per tutti noi, e i filosofi hanno a lungo speculato sulla misura in cui essa sia pre-determinata dal destino. In questo studio, recentemente pubblicato su Nature Communications, ci si concentra su una questione più ristretta: l'entità e la natura delle sue basi genetiche e come queste si interrelano con tratti di salute e malattia. In studi precedenti si è stimato che fino al 25% della variabilità della durata della vita umana è dovuta a fattori genetici, ...

A calendar to raiise funds for AIRC

2017
I volti delle donne" is a photo project ideated by Manuela Lanzafame, postdoc at the Institue of Molecular Genetics IGM-CNR of Pavia. Portraits of fourteen girls were used to describe different expression characterizing women and were used to realize a calendar. Earnings will be entirely devolved to the Italian foundation for cancer research (AIRC).

Muscle Cell News

2017
The e-scientific newsletter Connexon Creative highlights as THIS WEEK'S TOP STORY the paper "Estrogens enhance myoblast differentiation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy by antagonizing DUX4 activity", result of a research carried out in our Institute (https://www.musclecellnews.com/issue/). Connexon Creative sifts through all of the most recent scientific literature and news, and selects the most relevant and highest impact publications on regenerative medicine. This week, it ...

Anticorpo monoclonale contro la leucemia mieloide acuta

2017
Su iniziativa del gruppo Menarini e di Oxford BioTherapeutics è stato sviluppato un anticorpo monoclonale, umanizzato, MEN1112 che è in grado di riconoscere ed eliminare cellule di leucemia mieloide acuta. Dopo una fase preclinica di studio e caratterizzazione, che ha dimostrato efficacia e tollerabilità, MEN1112 è stato ed è utilizzato in uno uno studio di tipo traslazionale nel quale l'anticorpo ha dimostrato promettente attività in campioni di sangue periferico e midollare di pazienti ...

Neuroscienze: trovato il legame tra personalità e forma del cervello

2017
Come le differenze individuali nella struttura e funzione cerebrale siano legate al modo in cui ci comportiamo e proviamo emozioni e' una di quelle domande "esistenziali" alla quale gli scienziati cercano di dare una risposta da anni. Benchè risultati conclusivi non siano ancora disponibili, i dati raccolti fino ad ora hanno mostrato un forte legame tra la "forma" di alcune aree cerebrali e le varie caratteristiche di personalità. E' la conclusione di un recente studio effettuato da un team ...

ARMENISE-HARVARD SUMMER FELLOWSHIPS

2016
We are all very proud that Sarah Giacchetti, LM student in Molecular Biology and Genetics, and Marco Roncandor, student in Medicine at the University of Pavia, have won one of the fellowships made available by the Giovanni Armenise-Harvard Foundation in collaboration with CNR, the College Ghislieri, CIBIO / University of Trento, the Scuola Normale and the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa. Both winners are engaged in research work at our institute, Sarah Giacchetti at the Dr. Elena Botta's ...

Svelato il ruolo centrale del metabolismo nel funzionamento dei linfociti t umani

2016
Il meccanismo molecolare che controlla la funzionalità dei linfociti T dell'uomo è stato chiarito da una ricerca scientifica condotta dal gruppo del Prof. Giuseppe Matarese del Dipartimento di medicina molecolare e biotecnologie mediche dell'Università di Napoli 'Federico II' in collaborazione con il Laboratorio di proteomica dell'Itb-Cnr e il Laboratorio di immunologia dello Ieos-Cnr. I risultati dello studio sono stati pubblicati sulla prestigiosa rivista Immunity. I linfociti T umani sono ...

Nucleus/cytoplasm/mitochondria crosstalk in cellular homeostasis

2016
Objective of this research is the study of signaling pathways and mitochondrial metabolism in different models of neuro¬degenerative/neurodevelopmental diseases and in cancer. The delicate balance between cell death and proliferation is essential to the genesis of various pathologies and the mi¬tochondria are proving to be the key factors in regulating: cell growth and death, intracellular signaling and integration of stress signals. The targets of this research concern: mi¬tochondria-nucleus ...

Study of molecular biodiversity for the development of innovative product and processes

2016
This research activity include the following research topics: 1) Development of bioinformatics methodologies and spe¬cialized databases for taxonomic analysis and functional characterization of "omics" data. 2) Structural and functional annotation of the genome and study of the mechanisms of regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, viruses and organ¬elles (mitochondria and chloroplasts) through High-Through¬put Sequencing (HTS) technology and advanced ...

AIRC (Italian Association for Cancer Researchand) and young people

2016
AIRC rewards this year two young researchers at the IGM-CNR of Pavia: Elisa Belloni (with a three years fellowship) and Anna Di Matteo (with a one year fellowship). Both researchers are involved in a research project in the group directed by Dr. Claudia Ghigna aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms driving the development of tumor vasculature, a fundamental process in cancer progression since cancerous cells stimulate the formation of new blood vessels in order to support their growth and ...

Batteri spazzini e virus che curano

2016
Il nuovo libro di Giovanni Maga, pubblicato da Zanichelli, vuole accompagnare i lettori alla scoperta delle biotecnologie. Il grande fascino (e anche il timore) suscitato dalle biotecnologie, deriva dalla loro capacità di riscrivere, in un certo senso, il codice della vita. Spesso la parola "biotecnologie" è sinonimo di piante transgeniche o animali clonati. Ma l'impatto delle biotecnologie va molto oltre. Tra batteri a pile o che assorbono mercurio, piante che producono farmaci, virus ...

Imaging of brain TSPO expression in a mouse(model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with 18F-DPA-714 and micro-PET/CT.

2016
The feasibility and sensitivity of the TSPO radiotracer 18F-DPA-714 for the study of microglial activation in the brain and spinal cord of transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a model of ALS, was evaluated using high-resolution PET/CT and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that a significant increase in 18F-DPA-714 uptake can be measured with high-resolution PET/CT in the brainstem of symptomatic SOD1G93A mice as compared to WT SOD1 mice. Moreover, immunostaining revealed that TSPO expression was ...

Diffusion volume (DV) measurement in endometrial and cervicalcancer: A new MRI parameter in the evaluation of the tumor gradingand the risk classification

2016
A new MRI parameter representative of active tumor burden, the diffusion volume (DV), is proposed in the evaluation of histological grade (G1/G2/G3) and risk classification (low/medium/high-risk) of patients with cervical and endometrial cancer. DV is defined as the sum of the voxels within a tumor with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values enclosed in a specific range and associated to higher cellular density. A semi-automated segmentation procedure was used to calculate the DV. A ...

Neuropsichiatria: trovati nel cervello i "segni" anatomici della condotta antisociale

2016
Gli adolescenti con gravi comportamenti antisociali presentano evidenti anomalie cerebrali rispetto ai coetanei che non soffrono di questo disturbo: è quanto emerge da una ricerca recentemente pubblicata sulla rivista internazionale Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Lo studio è stato condotto dalle Università di Cambridge e Southampton in collaborazione con l'Università Tor Vergata e il Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR). I ricercatori che hanno partecipato allo studio ...

Che cosa sapeva Braccio di Ferro dei nitrati?

2016
Braccio di Ferro, con la sua tipica pipa permanentemente in bocca e gli avambracci nerboruti, è un uomo di mare dall'aspetto un po' buffo che si trova sovente in situazioni rissose con Bruto, imponente marinaio attaccabrighe dalla barba folta e nera. L'arma segreta di Braccio di Ferro sono gli spinaci, un alimento ricco di diverse sostanze nutritive tra cui i nitrati. Recenti studi scientifici suggeriscono che l'ossido nitrico, prodotto derivante dai nitrati, svolge diverse funzioni ...

Nerve growth factor eye drops improves visual loss in childhood optic

2016
The encouraging results of a phase II randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial testing the use of NGF in patients with severe optic pathway gliomas, were published in the prestigious journal Brain. The study was conducted at the Policlinico A. Gemelli in Rome by Antonio Chiaretti (Assistant Professor of Pediatrics), Benedetto Falsini (Associate Professor of Ophthalmology) and Riccardo Riccardi (Professor of Pediatric Oncology of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart) in ...

Microscopy School at the "Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli" in Bologna

2016
The Microscopy School, in collaboration with the Digital Microscopy Center at "Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli" in Bologna, aims to provide the basic information for the use of the main optical microscopy techniques such as SIM Super Resolution, STORM, STED , TIRF and deconvolution. Super resolution microscopy is one of the most significant developments in imaging in biology since the light microscope was invented. The course is opened to researchers, students and technicians who are interested in ...

Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

2016
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample1, 2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide ...

New Broad-spectrum antiviral agents open the way to a single drug effective against the most dangerous viruses

2016
The real possibility of a revolutionary approach to new-generation antivirals demonstrated by a study of the University of Siena and the Italian CNR. A single drug against all viral infections, capable of hitting the protein that the virus uses to multiply. And this is the goal that will be made possible thanks to a study conducted in collaboration between the University of Siena and the CNR, which has identified new molecules capable of inhibiting the human protein DDX3. The research, ...

Sixth Arturo Falaschi Lecture

2016
As every year, the Institute of Molecular Genetics of CNR organized a conference to commemorate the scientific and human figure of Arturo Falaschi, first Director of the Institute and a great scholar of the mechanisms that govern DNA replication. This event is part of the IGM-CNR contribution to the Course of Doctorate in Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Pavia. The Sixth edition of the 'Arturo Falaschi Lecture' will be held by Professor Tomas Lindahl who, along with Paul ...

Studio dei microRNA come effettori e regolatori del pathway delle MAP chinasi in melanoma

2016
L'Unità di Oncogenomica della Dott.ssa Poliseno ha sede ad IFC ed è parte del Core Research Laboratory dell'ITT (http://www.ittumori.it/). L'Unità è stata costituita tramite un finanziamento start up erogato dall'ITT nel 2012 e si occupa di studiare il ruolo svolto dai microRNA, piccole molecole di RNA a singolo filamento, come effettori e come regolatori del pathway delle MAP chinasi. Tale pathway, composto dalle proteine RAS, RAF, MEK e ERK, è quello più frequentemente alterato in ...

Stimuli-sensitive nano- carriers based on the human ferritin for cancer therapy

2016
Striking and eradicate cancer cells without damaging healthy tissue, in which way? The answer now comes from nanomedicine. The research team led by Dr. Ceci is developing "smart nano-carriers" capable of carrying large amounts of anticancer drugs, directing them selectively on neoplastic cells. Selective delivery to disease sites is particularly critical for many current cancer therapeutics that are distributed non-specifically in the body, thereby affecting both normal and cancer cells. In this ...

IGM remember Dario Fo

2016
On October 13th, Dario Fo, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1997, died. Others may better illustrate his absolutely original and innovative contributions in the literature and in the performing and visual arts, as well as his passionate commitment to social issues. On our side, we would like to remember the enthusiastic support that he and his wife Franca dedicated to our scientific research, in particular to the project stemming from a collaboration between Giovanni Maga in our Institute and ...

Respiratory symptoms/diseases prevalence is still increasing: a 25-yr population study

2016
Chronic respiratory diseases and allergic diseases have doubled in the last 25 years and living in a urban area is a risk factors for these diseases. Few epidemiological surveys on general population samples estimated changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms/diseases over a long time interval. A study performed by the Pulmonary Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, along with the Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, CNR, Palermo, the ...

Two genomic regions and lifestyle factors associated with human longevity.

2016
Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. In a study, recently published in Nature Communications, a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, helped discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). Previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity have also been validated. Next, the study shows that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new ...

"Free oxygen radicals and a hybrid genome: a dangerous cocktail"

2016
The genetic information is present in the cell as DNA, which is the form for storage and propagation to the next generation, and RNA, which is the form used by the cell to decode the instructions contained in its genes. DNA is composed of deoxynucleotides, while RNA is made of ribonucleotides. These two components are specifically recognised, respectively, by DNA polymerases, which use deoxynucleotides to build DNA, and by RNA polymerases, which synthesise RNA using ribonucleotides. DNA ...

Biogenesis of Membranes for Energy Transduction

2016
Particular attention is given to the study of mitochondri¬al biogenesis and its regulation under physiopathological conditions. Indeed, mitochondria, organelles equipped with membranes for energy transduction, have a pivotal role in the cell response to various kind of stress. The following topics are studied in detail: i) molecules of the mitochondrial membrane, such as cardiolipin, ii) aspects of mitochondrial bioenergetics under physiopathological and metabolic con¬ditions; iii) ...

L'IGB entra nel comunità del BBMRI con la prima biobanca genetica dedicata ad una singola malattia rara

2016
All'inizio di quest'anno, la Incontinentia Pigmenti Genetic Biobank (IPGB) ha ricevuto l'approvazione per entrare a far parte del network Registry & Biobanking del "Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure" (BBMRI), specifico per malattie rare, uno strumento indispensabile per il progresso delle ricerche sulle malattie genetiche rare. Il BBMRI è una struttura europea che raccoglie tutte le biobanche europee che rispondano a requisiti di qualità del materiale e dei dati ...

Biomembrane bioenergetics system: functional mechanism and pathophysiology

2016
1. Regulation of expression, structure and assembly of mem¬brane energy transducing systems of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In this contest, the signal transduction and second messen¬gers, in particular cAMP, play an important role in regulating the biogenesis and functional capacity of membrane ener¬gy transducing systems and oxygen free radical balance in physiological and pathological conditions. Another area in¬volves the study of energy transducing systems in microor¬ganisms of ...