Focus

Two genomic regions and lifestyle factors associated with human longevity.

2017
Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. In a study, recently published in Nature Communications, a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, helped discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). Previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity have also been validated. Next, the study shows that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new ...

Muscle Cell News

2017
The e-scientific newsletter Connexon Creative highlights as THIS WEEK'S TOP STORY the paper "Estrogens enhance myoblast differentiation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy by antagonizing DUX4 activity", result of a research carried out in our Institute (https://www.musclecellnews.com/issue/). Connexon Creative sifts through all of the most recent scientific literature and news, and selects the most relevant and highest impact publications on regenerative medicine. This week, it ...

A calendar to raiise funds for AIRC

2017
I volti delle donne" is a photo project ideated by Manuela Lanzafame, postdoc at the Institue of Molecular Genetics IGM-CNR of Pavia. Portraits of fourteen girls were used to describe different expression characterizing women and were used to realize a calendar. Earnings will be entirely devolved to the Italian foundation for cancer research (AIRC).

Anticorpo monoclonale contro la leucemia mieloide acuta

2017
Su iniziativa del gruppo Menarini e di Oxford BioTherapeutics è stato sviluppato un anticorpo monoclonale, umanizzato, MEN1112 che è in grado di riconoscere ed eliminare cellule di leucemia mieloide acuta. Dopo una fase preclinica di studio e caratterizzazione, che ha dimostrato efficacia e tollerabilità, MEN1112 è stato ed è utilizzato in uno uno studio di tipo traslazionale nel quale l'anticorpo ha dimostrato promettente attività in campioni di sangue periferico e midollare di pazienti ...

Non-coding RNA: the DNA damage fingerprints of cancer cells

2017
The integrity of our genome has to be maintained ed to prevent accumulation of harmful mutations, or cell death. This is even more needed in tumor cells where breaks in DNA occur at higher frequency. This feature of cancer cells can be exploited to set up therapeutic strategies based on inhibition of DNA repair with the aim to induce cell death. The drugs used so far to strike this "Achilles heel" of cancer cells block the enzymatic activity of essential DNA repair proteins, such as ATM, ATR or ...

ELIXIR EXCELERATE, AN EUROPEAN PROJECT FOR BIOINFORMATICS TRAINING IN THE LIFE SCIENCES

2017
The European consortium Elixir is devoted to coordinate, integrate and sustain bioinformatics resource in LIfe Science research accross Eurpean countries. In this article, the IBPM coordinator and coordinators of other European nodes operating in the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE project (https://www.elixir-europe.org/about-us/how-funded/eu-projects/excelerate), describe the Train-the-Trainer (TtT) programme, designed to empower scientists to deliver high-quality training in bioinformatics. The TtT ...

Neuroscienze: trovato il legame tra personalità e forma del cervello

2017
Come le differenze individuali nella struttura e funzione cerebrale siano legate al modo in cui ci comportiamo e proviamo emozioni e' una di quelle domande "esistenziali" alla quale gli scienziati cercano di dare una risposta da anni. Benchè risultati conclusivi non siano ancora disponibili, i dati raccolti fino ad ora hanno mostrato un forte legame tra la "forma" di alcune aree cerebrali e le varie caratteristiche di personalità. E' la conclusione di un recente studio effettuato da un team ...

MODEL ORGANISMS TO DISSECT THE MECHANISMS OF CELL DIVISION

2017
INT6/eIF3e is a highly conserved protein involved in several processes and downregulated in many human cancers. In this work, we show that loss of Int6 alters spindle microtubule behavior in mitosis, and hence affects the accuracy of chromosome segregation, by regulating the stability of specific mitotic proteins. Article: The Drosophila orthologue of the INT6 oncoprotein regulates mitotic microtubule growth and kinetochore structure Renda F, Pellacani C, Strunov A, Bucciarelli E, Naim V, ...

PLANT BIOLOGY: THE MOLECULAR BASES OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION

2017
The correct synchronization of development of the different tissues of the male organ (stamen) in flowers is essential for male fertility in self-pollinating plants. In this work we demonstrate that the correct distribution of auxin, a plant morphogen, is essential to ensure this synchronization in the model plant Arabidopsis, and that the middle layer - a stamen tissue of previously unknown function - is crucial in generating a developmentally instructive auxin distribution. These findings ...

UNDERSTANDING THE BASIS OF CANCER RESISTANCE TO THERAPEUTIC DRUGS

2017
Resistance to cancer chemotherapeutics, e.g. taxanes and anthracyclines, is largely due to the overexpression of efflux pumps, in particular ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein or MDR1). Resistance leads to poor clinical outcome. Overexpression of a group of genes that surround the ABCB1 genomic locus (the ABCB1 amplicon), including Sorcin (SRI), may contribute to the establishment of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Here we show that: i) Sorcin is overexpressed in several tumors and cancer cell lines, in ...

AN INNOVATIVE STRATEGY TO KILL CANCER CELLS

2017
Cancer cells show profoundly altered mitotic divisions, and mitotic proteins are viewed as potential targets of novel antineoplastic drugs. Here, we have developed an in silico virtual screening to identify one small molecule targeting the interaction surface between microtubules and the kinetochore protein Hec1, thereby blocking microtubule dynamics. This small molecule effectively inhibits neoplastic growth, both in cultured cancer cells and in murine xenograft models, by promoting mitotic ...

Nucleus/cytoplasm/mitochondria crosstalk in cellular homeostasis

2016
Objective of this research is the study of signaling pathways and mitochondrial metabolism in different models of neuro¬degenerative/neurodevelopmental diseases and in cancer. The delicate balance between cell death and proliferation is essential to the genesis of various pathologies and the mi¬tochondria are proving to be the key factors in regulating: cell growth and death, intracellular signaling and integration of stress signals. The targets of this research concern: mi¬tochondria-nucleus ...

Study of molecular biodiversity for the development of innovative product and processes

2016
This research activity include the following research topics: 1) Development of bioinformatics methodologies and spe¬cialized databases for taxonomic analysis and functional characterization of "omics" data. 2) Structural and functional annotation of the genome and study of the mechanisms of regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, viruses and organ¬elles (mitochondria and chloroplasts) through High-Through¬put Sequencing (HTS) technology and advanced ...

Neuropsichiatria: trovati nel cervello i "segni" anatomici della condotta antisociale

2016
Gli adolescenti con gravi comportamenti antisociali presentano evidenti anomalie cerebrali rispetto ai coetanei che non soffrono di questo disturbo: è quanto emerge da una ricerca recentemente pubblicata sulla rivista internazionale Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Lo studio è stato condotto dalle Università di Cambridge e Southampton in collaborazione con l'Università Tor Vergata e il Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR). I ricercatori che hanno partecipato allo studio ...

Che cosa sapeva Braccio di Ferro dei nitrati?

2016
Braccio di Ferro, con la sua tipica pipa permanentemente in bocca e gli avambracci nerboruti, è un uomo di mare dall'aspetto un po' buffo che si trova sovente in situazioni rissose con Bruto, imponente marinaio attaccabrighe dalla barba folta e nera. L'arma segreta di Braccio di Ferro sono gli spinaci, un alimento ricco di diverse sostanze nutritive tra cui i nitrati. Recenti studi scientifici suggeriscono che l'ossido nitrico, prodotto derivante dai nitrati, svolge diverse funzioni ...

ARMENISE-HARVARD SUMMER FELLOWSHIPS

2016
We are all very proud that Sarah Giacchetti, LM student in Molecular Biology and Genetics, and Marco Roncandor, student in Medicine at the University of Pavia, have won one of the fellowships made available by the Giovanni Armenise-Harvard Foundation in collaboration with CNR, the College Ghislieri, CIBIO / University of Trento, the Scuola Normale and the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa. Both winners are engaged in research work at our institute, Sarah Giacchetti at the Dr. Elena Botta's ...

Imaging of brain TSPO expression in a mouse(model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with 18F-DPA-714 and micro-PET/CT.

2016
The feasibility and sensitivity of the TSPO radiotracer 18F-DPA-714 for the study of microglial activation in the brain and spinal cord of transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a model of ALS, was evaluated using high-resolution PET/CT and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that a significant increase in 18F-DPA-714 uptake can be measured with high-resolution PET/CT in the brainstem of symptomatic SOD1G93A mice as compared to WT SOD1 mice. Moreover, immunostaining revealed that TSPO expression was ...

L'IGB entra nel comunità del BBMRI con la prima biobanca genetica dedicata ad una singola malattia rara

2016
All'inizio di quest'anno, la Incontinentia Pigmenti Genetic Biobank (IPGB) ha ricevuto l'approvazione per entrare a far parte del network Registry & Biobanking del "Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure" (BBMRI), specifico per malattie rare, uno strumento indispensabile per il progresso delle ricerche sulle malattie genetiche rare. Il BBMRI è una struttura europea che raccoglie tutte le biobanche europee che rispondano a requisiti di qualità del materiale e dei dati ...

Stimuli-sensitive nano-carriers based on the human ferritin for cancer therapy

2016
Striking and eradicate cancer cells without damaging healthy tissue, how? The answer comes from nanomedicine. The research team led by Dr. Ceci is developing "smart" nano-carriers capable of carrying large amounts of anticancer drugs, directing them selectively towards neoplastic cells. The selective delivery to cancer sites is a critical issue in the outcome of currently used cancer therapeutics that distribute non-specifically in the body, thereby damaging healthy as well as cancer cells. ...

"Free oxygen radicals and a hybrid genome: a dangerous cocktail"

2016
The genetic information is present in the cell as DNA, which is the form for storage and propagation to the next generation, and RNA, which is the form used by the cell to decode the instructions contained in its genes. DNA is composed of deoxynucleotides, while RNA is made of ribonucleotides. These two components are specifically recognised, respectively, by DNA polymerases, which use deoxynucleotides to build DNA, and by RNA polymerases, which synthesise RNA using ribonucleotides. DNA ...

Two genomic regions and lifestyle factors associated with human longevity.

2016
Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. In a study, recently published in Nature Communications, a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, helped discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). Previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity have also been validated. Next, the study shows that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new ...

Sixth Arturo Falaschi Lecture

2016
As every year, the Institute of Molecular Genetics of CNR organized a conference to commemorate the scientific and human figure of Arturo Falaschi, first Director of the Institute and a great scholar of the mechanisms that govern DNA replication. This event is part of the IGM-CNR contribution to the Course of Doctorate in Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Pavia. The Sixth edition of the 'Arturo Falaschi Lecture' will be held by Professor Tomas Lindahl who, along with Paul ...

Studio dei microRNA come effettori e regolatori del pathway delle MAP chinasi in melanoma

2016
L'Unità di Oncogenomica della Dott.ssa Poliseno ha sede ad IFC ed è parte del Core Research Laboratory dell'ITT (http://www.ittumori.it/). L'Unità è stata costituita tramite un finanziamento start up erogato dall'ITT nel 2012 e si occupa di studiare il ruolo svolto dai microRNA, piccole molecole di RNA a singolo filamento, come effettori e come regolatori del pathway delle MAP chinasi. Tale pathway, composto dalle proteine RAS, RAF, MEK e ERK, è quello più frequentemente alterato in ...

IMMUNOLOGY: THE "MEMORY" OF BONE MARROW T-LYMPHOCYTES

2016
The concept is emerging that the persisting memory T lymphocytes in the bone marrow (BM) is essential for immunological memory and successful response to vaccination, yet many questions remain unsolved. Di Rosa has proposed that the BM is essentially a nest for the homeostatic proliferation of memory T cells. Other researchers propose that the BM is rather a storage depot for memory T cells (debate in Nat Rev Immunol, april 2016). In 2016, Di Rosa proposed the "dual-niche" hypothesis, offering ...

BIOTECHNOLOGY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT OF DNA-BASED NANOMATERIALS

2016
A synergic collaboration between soft-matter physicists and molecular biologists of nucleic acid has yielded the realization of a new nano-material, DNA-hydrogel, liquid at low and high temperatures (≤20°C, > 45°C) and gelifies at 32/40°C. The liquid DNA hydrogel at 20°C can be easily injected into the organism and then quickly gelifies at body temperature (37°C). The abilty to gelify at 37°C is the starting point for the design and development of novel DNA-hydrogels as carriers ...

Diffusion volume (DV) measurement in endometrial and cervicalcancer: A new MRI parameter in the evaluation of the tumor gradingand the risk classification

2016
A new MRI parameter representative of active tumor burden, the diffusion volume (DV), is proposed in the evaluation of histological grade (G1/G2/G3) and risk classification (low/medium/high-risk) of patients with cervical and endometrial cancer. DV is defined as the sum of the voxels within a tumor with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values enclosed in a specific range and associated to higher cellular density. A semi-automated segmentation procedure was used to calculate the DV. A ...

BACTERIA SECRET WEAPONS

2016
Bacteria are highly adaptable and can live in very hostile environments. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a small gas molecule produced by bacteria in our intestine, and is a powerful inhibitor of cellular respiration by blocking the enzyme responsible for oxygen consumption in human cells. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that some enzymes help bacteria to produce energy and survive despite the presence of acid, often damaging human health. The team led by Ibpm, in collaboration ...

Respiratory symptoms/diseases prevalence is still increasing: a 25-yr population study

2016
Chronic respiratory diseases and allergic diseases have doubled in the last 25 years and living in a urban area is a risk factors for these diseases. Few epidemiological surveys on general population samples estimated changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms/diseases over a long time interval. A study performed by the Pulmonary Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, along with the Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, CNR, Palermo, the ...

New Broad-spectrum antiviral agents open the way to a single drug effective against the most dangerous viruses

2016
The real possibility of a revolutionary approach to new-generation antivirals demonstrated by a study of the University of Siena and the Italian CNR. A single drug against all viral infections, capable of hitting the protein that the virus uses to multiply. And this is the goal that will be made possible thanks to a study conducted in collaboration between the University of Siena and the CNR, which has identified new molecules capable of inhibiting the human protein DDX3. The research, ...

Svelato il ruolo centrale del metabolismo nel funzionamento dei linfociti t umani

2016
Il meccanismo molecolare che controlla la funzionalità dei linfociti T dell'uomo è stato chiarito da una ricerca scientifica condotta dal gruppo del Prof. Giuseppe Matarese del Dipartimento di medicina molecolare e biotecnologie mediche dell'Università di Napoli 'Federico II' in collaborazione con il Laboratorio di proteomica dell'Itb-Cnr e il Laboratorio di immunologia dello Ieos-Cnr. I risultati dello studio sono stati pubblicati sulla prestigiosa rivista Immunity. I linfociti T umani sono ...