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Science and Technology Indicators
2007 edition  

Update april 2008


Patents on industrial inventions represent the inventor's right protected by the State to industrial and commercial exploitation of an original idea, for a limited duration in a given country. They are a useful measurement of inventive activity among researchers and laboratories located in different countries and also of technology flows.

The source of the figures is OECD: a triad of patents refers to inventions patented at the three larger patent offices: the European Patent Office (EPO), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the Japan Patent Office (JPO) with the aim of protecting a specific invention (Figure 7.3). They are weighted on the total patenting activities in OECD countries. It is commonly held that this threefold application offers better protection. Statistics on these sets of patents allow more accurate international comparison, because what the OECD defines as home advantaged is factored in.

Figure 7.4 shows joint patent activity by inventors in different countries, an indicator of the internationalisation of science and technology. The international co-operation is particularly useful for finding competencies and resources beyond their national borders.

Figure 7.6 focuses on the number of patent applications of the manufacturing industries according to their technological level.

7. Patents

Fig. 7.3 - Triadic patents: applications to the EPO and the JPO, patents granted (USPTO) in several OECD countries over the OECD total, 2003
Fig. 7.4 - International co-operation in patent applications to the EPO by several OECD countries, China and Israel, 2001-2003
Fig. 7.6 - Patent applications to the EPO by manufacturing industries according to their technological level in several OECD countries, China and Israel, 2002-2004

 
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