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Science and Technology Indicators
2007 edition  

Update april 2008


The annual ISTAT survey on R&D is the source of data on the Italian situation (Figures 4.1 - 4.4), while the OECD, in its Main Science and Technology Indicators, vol. 2007-2, provides data for the remaining figures and Table 4.1. Quantitative information on Italian firms concerns research carried out in diverse economic activities over a decade (Figures 4.1 and 4.2). Sources of funding (Figure 4.3) and expenditure incurred by company size are also presented (Figure 4.4).

The following figures allow comparisons with other countries: financing of company R&D (Figure 4.5); the ratio between R&D expenditure and value added in a given industry (which is useful in measuring the commitment to allocating available resources in this field) shown in Figure 4.6, and the scientific and technological activities carried out in research-intensive and high-technology sectors (Figure 4.7).

Figures 4.8 and 4.9 present two parallel ratios: that between research expenditure and GDP, and that between research personnel and total employees. The first ratio is a key indicator of the commitment to research of any country. Figures 4.10 and 4.11 focus on the analysis of small and medium companies; these are of a special importance to Italy which is a country with a large number of SMEs.

R&D expenditure in foreign affiliates of companies belonging to industrialised countries (Figure 4.12) over total research expenditure by company is an indicator of internationalisation of R&D investments. As an amplification of the previous description Figures 4.13 and 4.14 are presented. The first one indicates the trend of the R&D-to-GDP ratio in the telecommunications sector, the other shows the position of European firms with regard to web access.

R&D expenditure of companies belonging to industrialised countries in foreign affiliates (Figure 4.12) over total research expenditure by company is an indicator of internationalisation of R&D investments. As an amplification of the previous description, Figures 4.13 and Table 4.1 are presented. The first one indicates the trend of the R&D-to-GDP ratio in the telecommunications sector, the other shows the position of European companies with regard to web access.

4. Business enterprise sector

Fig. 4.1 - Company R&D expenditure by group of economic activities in Italy, 1995- 2005
Fig. 4.2 - Trends of R&D expenditure in some economic activities in Italy, 1995 - 2005
Fig. 4.3 - Financing sources for company R&D in Italy, 1995-2005
Fig. 4.4 - Company intramural R&D expenditure by number of employees in Italy, 1997 and 2005
Fig. 4.5 - Funding to company R&D in several OECD countries, China and Israel, 2005
Fig. 4.6 - Company R&D expenditure over industry's value added in several OECD countries and Israel, 2005
Fig. 4.7 - Company R&D expenditure in research intensive sectors over company total expenses in several OECD countries, China and Israel, 2005
Fig. 4.8 - Company R&D expenditure over GDP in several OECD countries, China and Israel, 2005
Fig. 4.9 - Company research personnel over total employees in several OECD countries, China and Israel, 2005
Fig. 4.10 - SMEs' R&D expenditure over total expenditure by industries in several OECD countries, 2005
Fig. 4.11 - Public funding to SMEs' R&D over total expenditure by industries in several OECD countries, 2005
Fig. 4.12 - R&D expenditure by companies' foreign affiliates over total expenditure by companies in several OECD countries, 2005
Fig. 4.13 - R&D expenditure by manufacturing firms in the telecommunication industry over GDP in several OECD countries, 1997 and 2004
Tbl. 4.1 - Companies that have access to the web over total number of companies in several OECD countries, 2006

 
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