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and Technology Indicators
Update april 2008
The annual ISTAT survey on R&D is the source of data on the Italian situation (Figures 4.1 - 4.4), while the OECD, in its Main Science and Technology Indicators, vol. 2007-2, provides data for the remaining figures and Table 4.1. Quantitative information on Italian firms concerns research carried out in diverse economic activities over a decade (Figures 4.1 and 4.2). Sources of funding (Figure 4.3) and expenditure incurred by company size are also presented (Figure 4.4).
The following figures allow comparisons with other countries: financing of company R&D (Figure 4.5); the ratio between R&D expenditure and value added in a given industry (which is useful in measuring the commitment to allocating available resources in this field) shown in Figure 4.6, and the scientific and technological activities carried out in research-intensive and high-technology sectors (Figure 4.7).
Figures 4.8 and 4.9 present two parallel ratios: that between research expenditure and GDP, and that between research personnel and total employees. The first ratio is a key indicator of the commitment to research of any country. Figures 4.10 and 4.11 focus on the analysis of small and medium companies; these are of a special importance to Italy which is a country with a large number of SMEs.
R&D expenditure in foreign affiliates of companies belonging to industrialised countries (Figure 4.12) over total research expenditure by company is an indicator of internationalisation of R&D investments. As an amplification of the previous description Figures 4.13 and 4.14 are presented. The first one indicates the trend of the R&D-to-GDP ratio in the telecommunications sector, the other shows the position of European firms with regard to web access.
R&D expenditure of companies belonging to industrialised countries in foreign affiliates (Figure 4.12) over total research expenditure by company is an indicator of internationalisation of R&D investments. As an amplification of the previous description, Figures 4.13 and Table 4.1 are presented. The first one indicates the trend of the R&D-to-GDP ratio in the telecommunications sector, the other shows the position of European companies with regard to web access.
4. Business enterprise sector
Fig. 4.1 - Company R&D expenditure
by group of economic activities in Italy, 1995- 2005
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