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and Technology Indicators
Update april 2008
Data presented in this section are necessary to estimate the amount of R&D activity in the country and place it in the international context. The National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) is the data source for Italy. The Institute performs a survey on R&D yearly. Since 2002 it has been identifying the non-profit sector (setting it alongside the other institutional sectors made up of government, university and firms). OECD' Main Science and Technology Indicators, vol. 2007-2, is the source for international comparisons.In this section, the roles of the institutional expenditure sectors and financing sources are emphasised. Furthermore Figure 1.1 allows the reader to estimate the trend of R&D expenditure since 1980. Figure 1.2 presents the expenditure over the last decade, broken down into the principal institutional sectors; Figure 1.3 highlights investments by various institutional sectors into basic research, applied research and experimental development. The human and financial resources of the Italian regions for scientific activity are also shown (Figures 1.4, 1.5, 1.6).
The ratio of R&D expenditure over GDP represents the size of investment in science over the wealth generated by a country. It is the most widely used indicator in international comparisons (Table 1.3).
Figure 1.12 shows expenditure on research, higher education and software (net of duplications) incurred by several OECD countries. These expenses are considered fundamental for economic growth, generating new jobs and achieving a higher standard of living.
1. R&D data
Tbl. 1.1 - R&D expenditure in Italy,
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