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Contributo in rivista
Tipo: Articolo in rivista
Titolo: Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol.
Anno di pubblicazione: 2020
Autori: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
Affiliazioni autori: Imperial College London, London, UK. 2 Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. 3 University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. 4 Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 5 Middlesex University, London, UK. 6 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 7 Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. 8 Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 9 Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. 10Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 11World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 12Independent researcher, Los Angeles, CA, USA. 13University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. 14Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. 15Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. 16Thomayer Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. 17Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy. 18South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa. 19Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 20Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. 21ICMR- National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. 22Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. 23ICMR-National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research, Bengaluru, India. 24Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. 25Capital Medical University Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing, China. 26Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. 27Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica. 28Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. 29Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine. 30Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico. 31Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 32Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Taguig, The Philippines. 33Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. 34Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutricion, Mexico City, Mexico. 35University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 36Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. 37Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 38Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. 39University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. 40University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. 41National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan. 42Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait City, Kuwait. 43Aldara Hospital and Medical Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 44King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 45Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg. 46World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt. 47Bombay Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, India. 48University of Lille, Lille, France. 49Lille University Hospital, Lille, France. 50Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway. 51Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. 52Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. 53Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. 54National Institute of Public Health, Tunis, Tunisia. 55Institute of Public Health of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. 56Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. 57University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. 58Abt Associates, Kathmandu, Nepal. 59University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 60Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. 61University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. 62Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. 63Regional Authority of Public Health, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia. 64University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal. 65Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 66University of Science and Technology, Sana'a, Yemen. 67Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. 68Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. 69Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain. 70University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. 71Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA. 72Mohammed V University de Rabat, Rabat, Morocco. 73Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 74Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan. 75Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan. 76University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 77Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. 78University Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia. 79Cafam University Foundation, Bogota, Colombia. 80Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan. 81Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. 82Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania. 83University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 84Sunder Lal Jain Hospital, Delhi, India. 85Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. 86Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 87Ufa Eye Research Institute, Ufa, Russia. 88Nepal Health Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal. 89University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. 90University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. 91Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 92National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. 93University of Turin, Turin, Italy. 94Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore. 95Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. 96Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 97IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy. 98Toulouse University School of Medicine, Toulouse, France. 99University Hospital of Varese, Varese, Italy. 100University Hospital KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 101Ministry of Health, Victoria, Seychelles. 102University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. 103Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela. 104Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany. 105German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. 106University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 107Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. 108Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. 109University of Malta, Msida, Malta. 110Istanbul University - Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey. 111Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil. 112Gaetano Fucito Hospital, Mercato San Severino, Italy. 113University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. 114Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago, Spain. 115Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Rome, Italy. 116Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Nicosia, Cyprus. 117Dr. A. Ramachandran's Diabetes Hospital, Chennai, India. 118University College London, London, UK. 119Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. 120Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China. 121Kailuan General Hospital, Tangshan, China. 122Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore. 123Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. 124The Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Ramat Gan, Israel. 125Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan. 126Murcia Health Council, Murcia, Spain. 127Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 128Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea. 129Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland. 130Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 131Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 132Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. 133Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria. 134Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Brazil. 135University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. 136Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France. 137CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain. 138University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary. 139Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. 140National Council of Research, Reggio Calabria, Italy. 141Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil. 142Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique. 143Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. 144National Research Centre for Preventive Medicine, Moscow, Russia. 145University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada. 146French Public Health Agency, St Maurice, France. 147Mediterranea Cardiocentro, Naples, Italy. 148University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. 149Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. 150University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 151Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador. 152Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany. 153Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania. 154University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. 155National Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland. 156Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. 157University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia. 158Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Gizo, Solomon Islands. 159Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran. 160University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden. 161National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Tunis, Tunisia. 162The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. 163Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques, Barcelona, Spain. 164University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa. 165University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany. 166Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey. 167University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 168Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 169Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. 170Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK. 171University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. 172Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. 173Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran. 174Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. 175Centro de Salud Villanueva Norte, Badajoz, Spain. 176Servicio Extremeño de Salud, Badajoz, Spain. 177Ministry of Health, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 178Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. 179Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. 180Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 181Hospital Universitario Son Espases, Palma, Spain. 182Kindai University, Osaka-Sayama, Japan. 183Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. 184Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. 185University of Catania, Catania, Italy. 186CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Alicante, Spain. 187CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Barcelona, Spain. 188Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 189Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 190B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. 191University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. 192University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 193Lund University, Lund, Sweden. 194McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada. 195Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. 196St Anne's University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic. 197National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico. 198Centro de Estudios en Diabetes A.C., Mexico City, Mexico. 199Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 200Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic. 201Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland. 202University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. 203National Center of Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing, China. 204Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore. 205Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland. 206Universidad Icesi, Cali, Colombia. 207Eternal Heart Care Centre and Research Institute, Jaipur, India. 208National Health Insurance Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea. 209Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Tehran, Iran. 210The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados. 211Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. 212University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. 213Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. 214University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. 215Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA. 216Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. 217Joep Lange Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 218Chronic Diseases Research Center, Tehran, Iran. 219University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 220The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 221University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. 222Kingston Health Sciences Centre, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 223Heart Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. 224Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. 225University Oran 1, Oran, Algeria. 226Independent Public Health Specialist, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. 227Ministry of Health and Sports, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. 228CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Murcia, Spain. 229VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 230International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. 231American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. 232Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. 233University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. 234National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan. 235Medical University Varna, Varna, Bulgaria. 236The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 237The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 238Niigata University, Niigata, Japan. 239Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. 240Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. 241University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 242University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. 243University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia. 244Heart Foundation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 245Guangzhou 12th Hospital, Guangzhou, China. 246Universidad Eugenio Maria de Hostos, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 247Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. 248Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. 249World Health Organization Country Office, Delhi, India. 250Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. 251University of Opole, Opole, Poland. 252University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. 253Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 254Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal. 255Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. 256National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India. 257University of Münster, Münster, Germany. 258Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan, Iran. 259Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. 260Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Dortmund, Germany. 261Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. 262Hypertension Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. 263Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. 264Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 265Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 266National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Republic of Korea. 267University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 268University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. 269Oulu Deaconess Institute Foundation, Oulu, Finland. 270Tartu University Clinics, Tartu, Estonia. 271Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Japan. 272Ministry of Health and Quality of Life, Port Louis, Mauritius. 273University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany. 274University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. 275University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. 276African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya. 277Higher Institute of Health Sciences of Settat, Settat, Morocco. 278Ministry of Health, Algiers, Algeria. 279Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. 280Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden. 281Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran, Iran. 282University of Public Health, Yangon, Myanmar. 283National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. 284Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. 285Tampere University, Tampere, Finland. 286University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. 287West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. 288Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Rene Rachou Research Institute, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 289National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. 290University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. 291Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 292National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia. 293Universidad San Martín de Porres, Lima, Peru. 294Consejería de Sanidad Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid, Spain. 295Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden. 296Peking University, Beijing, China. 297Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil. 298University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. 299The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. 300Institute of Neuroscience of the National Research Council, Padua, Italy. 301Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 302Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece. 303French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development, Montpellier, France. 304Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil. 305University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 306University of Padua, Padua, Italy. 307Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. 308Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. 309Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, Brazil. 310UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. 311Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa. 312Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. 313University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. 314University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. 315Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. 316Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Lille, France. 317ICMR-National Institute of Medical Statistics, New Delhi, India. 318Lusófona University, Lisbon, Portugal. 319Women's Social and Health Studies Foundation, Trivandrum, India. 320Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy. 321Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. 322Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. 323University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. 324Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France. 325University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. 326Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. 327University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos, Cienfuegos, Cuba. 328Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. 329La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 330International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Warsaw, Poland. 331Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud, Panama City, Panama. 332World Health Organization Country Office, Lilongwe, Malawi. 333University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. 334Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. 335Ulm University, Ulm, Germany. 336Kobe University, Kobe, Japan. 337Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, India. 338University Medicine of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany. 339University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. 340Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 341Miami Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Miami, FL, USA. 342University of Turku, Turku, Finland. 343Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network, Amman, Jordan. 344University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. 345Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 346Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. 347Ministry of Health, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei. 348University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal. 349MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Southampton, UK. 350University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia. 351Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 352Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 353IRCCS Ente Ospedaliero Specializzato in Gastroenterologia S. de Bellis, Bari, Italy. 354Jivandeep Hospital, Anand, India. 355South African Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa. 356Vietnam National Heart Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam. 357Clínica de Medicina Avanzada Dr. Abel González, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 358Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany. 359University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 360Cardiovascular Prevention Centre, Udine, Italy. 361Public Health Agency of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. 362Observatorio de Salud Pública de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. 363Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran. 364Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran. 365Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam. 366India Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. 367Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol, Girona, Spain. 368Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. 369University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 370University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. 371University of the Philippines, Manila, The Philippines. 372Minas Gerais State Secretariat for Health, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 373CS S. Agustín Ibsalut, Palma, Spain. 374Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 375Canarian Health Service, Tenerife, Spain. 376Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. 377Associazione Calabrese di Epatologia, Reggio Calabria, Italy. 378Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. 379Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France. 380Institute of Food Sciences of the National Research Council, Avellino, Italy. 381Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research, New Delhi, India. 382Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia. 383National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru. 384Catalan Department of Health, Barcelona, Spain. 385Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. 386South Karelia Social and Health Care District, Lappeenranta, Finland. 387Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran. 388National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan. 389University of São Paulo Clinics Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. 390Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 391Center for Oral Health Services and Research Mid-Norway, Trondheim, Norway. 392King's College London, London, UK. 393National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. 394Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 395Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. 396St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 397University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 398Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 399Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup, Denmark. 400London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 401Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia. 402University of Bari, Bari, Italy. 403University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 404Institut Régional de Santé Publique, Ouidah, Benin. 405University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. 406Izmir Katip Çelebi University, Izmir, Turkey. 407University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 408Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Nancy, France. 409Bonn University, Bonn, Germany. 410Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia. 411National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland. 412National Institute of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology, Havana, Cuba. 413Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan. 414National Statistic Office of Cabo Verde, Praia, Cabo Verde. 415Ministry of Health, Amman, Jordan. 416Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, India. 417Health Service of Murcia, Murcia, Spain. 418Institut vestigacio Sanitaria Illes Balears, Menorca, Spain. 419Universidad Centro-Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. 420Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey. 421University of Tampere Tays Eye Center, Tampere, Finland. 422Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, USA. 423Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 424Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam. 425University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 426Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia. 427Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. 428North Karelian Center for Public Health, Joensuu, Finland. 429University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 430Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland. 431Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 432Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 433Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing, China. 434Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China. 435Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. 436St George's, University of London, London, UK. 437Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. 438University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 439Institute of Food and Nutrition Development of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing, China. 440Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. 441Penang Medical College, Penang, Malaysia. 442University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus. 443Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 444Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China. 445Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 446West Kazakhstan State Medical University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan. 447University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
Abstract: High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2 . However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5 . However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol--which is a marker of cardiovascular risk-- changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
Lingua abstract: inglese
Pagine da: 73
Pagine a: 77
Numero volume: 582
Referee: Sì: Internazionale
Stato della pubblicazione: Published version
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